# लालकिला का असली नाम लालकोट हैं # (एक रहस्यमय जानकारी)
जैसे ताजमहल का असली नाम तेजोमहालय है और क़ुतुब मीनार का असली नाम विष्णु स्तम्भ है वैसे ही यह बात भी सत्य है|
– अक्सर हमें यह पढाया जाता है कि दिल्ली का लालकिला शाहजहाँ ने बनवाया था| लेकिन यह एक सफ़ेद झूठ है और इतिहासकारों का कहना है की वास्तव में लालकिला पृथ्वीराज ने बारहवीं शताब्दी में पूरा बनवाया था जिसका नाम “लाल कोट “था जिसे तोमर वंश के शासक ‘अनंग पाल’ ने १०६० में बनवाना शुरू किया था |महाराज अनंगपाल तोमर और कोई नहीं बल्कि महाभारत के अभिमन्यु के वंशज तथा महाराज पृथ्वीराज चौहान के नाना जी थे|
इसका प्रमाण >
तारीखे फिरोजशाही के पृष्ट संख्या 160 (ग्रन्थ ३) में लेखक लिखता है कि सन 1296 के अंत में जब अलाउद्दीन खिलजी अपनी सेना लेकर दिल्ली आया तो वो कुश्क-ए-लाल ( लाल प्रासाद/ महल ) कि ओर बढ़ा और वहां उसने आराम किया.
>अकबरनामा और अग्निपुराण दोनों ही जगह इस बात के वर्णन हैं कि महाराज अनंगपाल ने ही एक भव्य और आलिशान दिल्ली का निर्माण करवाया था.
> शाहजहाँ से 250 वर्ष पहले ही 1398 ईस्वी में तैमूरलंग ने भी पुरानी दिल्ली का उल्लेख किया हुआ है (जो कि शाहजहाँ द्वारा बसाई बताई जाती है).
– लाल किले के एक खास महल मे वराह के मुँह वाले चार नल अभी भी लगे हुए हैं क्या शाहजहाँ सूअर के मुंह वाले नल को लगवाता ? हिन्दू ही वराह को अवतार मान कर पावन मानते है|
– किले के एक द्वार पर बाहर हाथी की मूर्ति अंकित है क्योंकि राजपूत राजा गजो (हाथियों) के प्रति अपने प्रेम के लिए विख्यात थे जबकि इस्लाम जीवित प्राणी के मूर्ति का विरोध करता है|
– लालकिला के दीवाने खास मे केसर कुंड नाम से एक कुंड भी बना हुआ है जिसके फर्श पर हिंदुओं मे पूज्य कमल पुष्प अंकित है| साथ ही ध्यान देने योग्य बात यह है कि केसर कुंड एक हिंदू शब्दावली है जो कि हमारे राजाओ द्वारा केसर जल से भरे स्नान कुंड के लिए प्राचीन काल से ही प्रयुक्त होती रही है|
– गुंबद या मीनार का कोई अस्तित्व तक नही है लालकिला के दीवानेखास और दीवानेआम मे| दीवानेखास के ही निकट राज की न्याय तुला अंकित है \ ब्राह्मणों द्वारा उपदेशित राजपूत राजाओ की न्याय तुला चित्र से प्रेरणा लेकर न्याय करना हमारे इतिहास मे प्रसिद्द है|
– दीवाने ख़ास और दीवाने आम की मंडप शैली पूरी तरह से 984 ईस्वी के अंबर के भीतरी महल (आमेर/पुराना जयपुर) से मिलती है जो कि राजपूताना शैली मे बना हुई है|
आज भी लाल किले से कुछ ही गज की दूरी पर बने हुए देवालय हैं जिनमे से एक लाल जैन मंदिर और दूसरा गौरीशंकर मंदिर है जो कि शाहजहाँ से कई शताब्दी पहले राजपूत राजाओं के बनवाए हुए है|
– लाल किले के मुख्य द्वार के फोटो में बने हुए लाल गोले में देखिये , आपको अधिकतर ऐसी अलमारियां पुरानी शैली के हिन्दू घरो के मुख्य द्वार पर या मंदिरों में मिल जायंगी जिनपर गणेश जी विराजमान होते हैं |
– और फिर शाहजहाँ ने एक भी शिलालेख मे लाल किले का वर्णन तक नही है
The Rig Veda, the oldest document of the human race includes references to the following modes of transportation: Jalay…an – a vehicle designed to operate in air and water (Rig Veda 6.58.3); Kaara- Kaara- Kaara- a vehicle that operates on ground and in water. (Rig Veda 9.14.1); Tritala- Tritala- Tritala- a vehicle consisting of three stories. (Rig Veda 3.14.1); Trichakra Ratha – Trichakra Ratha – Trichakra Ratha – a three-wheeled vehicle designed to operate in the air. (Rig Veda 4.36.1); Vaayu Ratha- Vaayu Ratha- Vaayu Ratha- a gas or wind-powered chariot. (Rig Veda 5.41.6); Vidyut Ratha- Vidyut Ratha- Vidyut Ratha- a vehicle that operates on power. (Rig Veda 3.14.1).
Sage Agastya is mentioned in Mahabharata of 4000 BC. The “Agastya Samhita” gives us Agastya`s descriptions of two types of aeroplanes. The first is a “chchatra” (umbrella or balloon) to be filled with hydrogen. The process of extracting hydrogen from water is described in elaborate detail and the use of electricity in achieving this is clearly stated. This was stated to be a primitive type of plane, useful only for escaping from a fort when the enemy had set fire to the jungle all around. Hence the name “Agniyana”. The second type of aircraft mentioned is somewhat on the lines of the parachute. It could be opened and shut by operating chords. This aircraft has been described as “vimanadvigunam” i.e. of a lower order than the regular aeroplane.
Maharishi Bharadwaja is one of the Sapt Rishis and the guru of Dronacharya of Mahabharata , who lived in 4200 BC. Bharadwaja states that there are thirty-two secrets of the science of aeronautics. Of these some are astonishing and some indicate an advance even beyond our own times. For instance the secret of “para shabda graaha”, i.e. a cabin for listening to conversation in another plane, has been explained by elaborately describing an electrically worked sound-receiver . Later in modern times, this was re-discovered by Nikola Tesla.
In “shatru vimana kampana kriya” and “shatru vimana nashana kriya” gves details on resonating and destroying enemy aircraft, as well as photographing enemy planes, rendering their occupants unconscious and making one`s own plane invisible. In Vastraadhikarana, the chapter describing the dress and other wear required while flying, talks in detail about the wear for both the pilot and the passenger separately.
In Srimad Bhagavatam it is described that a great mystic named Kardama Muni created an entire floating city in which he and his wife toured around the world. Another Rishi Maya Danava built an entire flying city for Salva. Among other wonderful qualities it possessed the following:
A special navigation system for seeing at night, high speed capability to avoid detection from the ground, and the ability to become either completely invisible or to appear as if there were many copies of it flying in the sky.
The astras or ancient scalar interferometry missiles were far superior in the respect that it can be directed to search and destroy one person, in contrast to the modern nuclear weapons which kill thousands of innocent people indiscriminately. The Brahmastra is created and directed by longitudinal wave , sound vibration. Only highly evolved seers are given the Mantras to trigger a Brahmastra, as it involves resonating the 12 strand DNA with a king sized pineal gland.
Vedic Vimanas or flying saucers used mercury vortex ion engines. The ion engine was first demonstrated by German-born NASA scientist Ernst Stuhlinger. The Vedic texts were taken to Germany by Hermann Gundert.
The use of ion propulsion systems were first demonstrated in space by the NASA Lewis “ Space Electric Rocket Test SERT.. These thrusters used mercury as the reaction mass. The first was SERT 1, launched July 20, 1964, successfully proved that the technology operated as predicted in space. The second test, SERT-II, launched on February 3, 1970, verified the operation of two mercury ion engines for thousands of running hours
Hindus Knew about total number of Species before 7000+BC.
Nameste _/\_ this is another proof that Ancient Hindus/Indian was the First ever Technologically Advanced Civilization in the world .They had a knowledge about every thing.
From planets not only about solar system but about the universe, milkyway, black hole, atoms, Sun’s energy classification, Vibration, positive and negetive energy etc One must have most advanced scientific equipments to even acknowledge their existence.
It took many years for mankind to invent fire and it took many 10000s of years to invent wheel and so on.
If Ancient Hindus can calculate total number species on earth what kind of research and advanced scientific equipments and technically advanced system they must have had ? Even Hindus calculated the number of species from which Human Body evolved,
THIS IS MIND BOGGLING even to think. What is the age of Hinduism even with the same logic of modern Historians ?.
Modern Christianity based Science wont agree what i said above . SO let me provide some info about my claim. Remember if a veda was written 5000 bc ago the knowledge in that vedas are even older than the writter itself.
These are the knowledge passed on to many generations. Modern day biologists have claimed to list around 1.3 million species of life on earth.
They agree that this is a small number and still many species are yet to be discovered, named and listed.
Everyday, about 15000 new species are being discovered and they estimate that earth may be habitating between 8 to 8.7 million species with life.
Padama Purana (written around 5000 years ago in Ancient India by Veda Vyas) states that Earth has 8.4 million different species with life.
But this number could be reduced today as many species have become extinct and population among other species (mostly humans) have increased.
Just as Bhagavadgita says (in chapter 2.22) that just as one gives up an old shirt to put on a new one, the soul gives up an old body to acquire a new kind of a body (vasāmsi jirnāni yathā vihāya).
All the shapes, sizes of these species (including humans) will be decided by Manu (the one who rules creation for a certain time period).
In present Sweta Varaha Kalpa, 7th is Vaivasvat Manu, who designed our body structures. In another manvantara, humans and animals may look different.
A soul can take birth in any form of life out of the 8.4 million and many might have attained human form, which is stated as the ultimate one on earth.
Classification of Species on Earth Padama Purana also mentions about different classifications among these 8.4 million species with life on earth :
jalaja nava lakshani, sthavara laksha-vimshati, krimayo rudra-sankhyakah, pakshinam dasha-lakshanam, trinshal-lakshani pashavah, chatur lakshani manavah Jalaja (Water based) – 0.9 million
Sthaavara (immobile, like plants & trees) – 2.0 million
Krimaayo (Reptiles) – 1.1 million
Pakshinaam (Birds) – 1.0 million
Paashavah (terrestrial animals) – 3.0 million
Maanavah (human-like animals, including human species) – 0.4 million Total number of species with life are 8.4 million.
Modern day scientists have not been able to discover even 16% of what ancient seers knew.
Kannada dasara pada of more than 500 years old says : “ಎಂಭತ್ತ್ನಾಲ್ಕುಲಕ್ಷಜೀವರಾಶಿಯನ್ನುದಾಟಿಬಂದಈಶರೀರ…”
Translation : Our human body evolved out of 8.4 million species.
VIJAY STAMBHA ~ OF EMPEROR VIKRAMADITYA ~~ TRUTH OF FALSE QUTUB MINAR
The complex is supposed to be built by the Greatest of Hindu emperors there was MaharajaDhiraj Vikramaditya of Ujjaini , brother of Bharathiri the Kind and Philosopher and originator of Bharathari neeti shataka . The tower is known to have been errected to celebrate the victory of the Great Emperor Vikramaditya , over the lands now called as Arab lands . They have known to celebrate the coming of the vedic way of life .
Vedic culture was very much alive just before the birth of Muhammad. Again let’s refer to the Sair-Ul-Okul. The following poem was written by Jirrham Bintoi who lived 165 years before the prophet Muhammed. It is in praise of India’s great King Vikramaditya who had lived 500 years before Bintoi.
Bikramatul phehalameen Karimun
Yubee qaid min howa
Yaphakharu phajgal asari
nahans Osirim Bayjayholeen
Yaha sabdunya Kanateph natephi
bijihalin Atadari Bilala masaurateen
phakef Tasabahu. Kaunni eja majakaralhada
– (Sair-ul-Okul, Page 315)
“Fortunate are those who were born during King Vikram’s reign, he was a noble generous, dutiful ruler devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time, We Arabs oblivious of divinity were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting & torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for its life in the cruel jaws of a wolf, we Arabs were gripped by ignorance. The whole country was enveloped in a darkness as intense as on a New moon night. But the present dawn & pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favor of that noble king Vikram whose benevolence did not lose sight of us foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred culture amongst us and sent scholars from his own land whose brilliance shone like that of the sun in our country. These scholars & preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made aware of the presence of god, introduced to his secret knowledge & put on the road to truth, had come to our country to initiate us in that culture & impart education.”
Thus we can see that Vedic religion and culture were present in Pre-Islamic Arabia as early as 1850 B.C., and definitely present at the time of Mohammed’s birth.
The Iron Pillar served an important astronomical function, when it was originally at Vishnupadagiri. The early morning shadow of the Iron Pillar fell in the direction of the foot of Anantasayain Vishnu (in one of the panels at Udayagiri) only in the time around summer solstice (June 21).Dhillika is the old name of India’s capital, New Delhi. The name Delhi is derived from the word ‘Dhillika’.The Iron Pillar ,a symbol of Truth and Nemesis-God Shani of Hindu Religion was brought by Anang Pal of Tomar dynasty to Delhi to establish rule of Clean,truthful and honest governance,from Mathura a land of Krishna devotion.The idea behind it was to establish an orientation to the great epic Mahabharata whic
h is connected to the history of Delhi as well as the significance of Gita,and Yudhishtra’s ascent to heaven in bodily form; from Swargya Rohini..The Hindu rulers built temples and used psychological epigraphs and monuments to instill religion in the local The Iron pillar bears an inscription in Sanskrit which states that it was erected as a standard in honour of the Hindu god, Vishnu. It also praises the valor and qualities of a king referred to simply as Chandra, who has been identified with the Gupta King Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375-413).
The reference was also to the Satvikka Purana [Smirti Texts of Hinduism]called Garuda Purana which is recited as a cremation ritual.The Garuda atop the pillar ,which was removed by muslims,bore testimony to what was inscribed and its relevance to the installation of the pillar.The pillar was used to signify the death principle of Hindus,the need for attaining Mokhsha and the path of Dharma. The iron pillar was the Garud Dhwaj alias Garud Stambh, i.e, the sentinel post of the Vishnu temple. The Sanskrit inscription in Brahmi script on the non-rusting iron pillar proclaimed the lofty standards of Vishnu on Vishnupad Giri. Here in the said precincts ,the description indicates that a statue of the rec- lining Vishnu ;initiating the creation was consecrated in the central shrine there which was ravaged by Mohammad Ghori and his henchman Qutubuddin.
Truth revealed from sky . People usually see this tower from ground. Prof Bhatnagar hired a helicopter and took a photo from the sky. That is when he realised that is a blooming lotus flower.
Tamil Brahmi Script Found in Egypt
A broken storage jar with inscriptions in an ancient form of Tamil script, dated to the first century BCE., has been excavated in Egypt.
Dr. Roberta Tomber, a pottery specialist at the British Museum, London, identified the fragmentary vessel as a storage jar made in India. Iravatham Mahadevan, a specialist in Tamil epigraphy, has confirmed that the inscription on the jar is in Tamil written in the Tamil Brahmi script of about the first century.
Earlier excavations at this site about 30 years ago yielded two pottery inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi from the same era. Additionally, a pottery inscription was found in 1995 at Berenike, a Roman settlement of the Red Sea coast of Egypt. These discoveries proved material evidence to corroborate the literary accounts by classical Western authors and the Tamil Sangam poets about the flourishing trade between the India and Rome, via the Red Sea ports, in the early centuries CE.
New evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas
By Rakesh Tewari
[Director, U.P. State Archaeological Department, Roshan-ud-daula Kothi,
Kaisarbagh, Lucknow 226 001 (U.P.) India (Email: email@example.com)]
Recent excavations in Uttar Pradesh have turned up iron artefacts, furnaces, tuyeres and slag in layers radiocarbon dated between c. BCE 1800 and 1000. This raises again the question of whether iron working was brought in to India during supposed immigrations of the second millennium BCE, or developed independently.
The date and origin of the introduction of iron artefacts and iron working into India has remained a much debated research problem, not unconnected with the equally debatable question of its association with the supposed arrival, in the second millennium BCE, of immigrants from the west, as often suggested on the basis of the Rigveda. Around the middle of the last century, iron-working origins in India were dated to c. 700-600 BCE (Gordon 1950; Wheeler 1959). Subsequently, a combination of an association with Painted Grey Ware (PGW) and the advent of radiocarbon dating began to push this date back towards the second millennium BCE, a period which had in fact favoured by some scholars earlier in the early twentieth century (Chakrabarti 1992: 10-12).
Considering the radiocarbon dates for the iron bearing deposits at Ataranjikhera in Uttar Pradesh (Table 1) and Hallur in Karnataka, and stratigraphic position of iron in the lower levels mainly at Kausambi near Allahabad, Jakhera in district Etah in the Ganga Valley, and Nagda and Eran in central India, dates around 1000 BCE were suggested (Subramanyam 1964; Banarjee 1965; Chakrabarti 1974; Nagarajarao 1974). At the same time Chakrabarti (1974: 354) challenged the view of a western origin, stating “there is no logical basis to connect the beginning of iron in India with any diffusion from the west, from Iran and beyond”, and further (1976: 122) “that India was a separate and possibly independent centre of manufacture of early iron.”
Since then there has been fresh evidence for even earlier iron-working in India. Technical studies on materials dated c. 1000 BCE at Komaranhalli (Karnataka) showed that the smiths of this site could deal with large artefacts, implying that they had already been experimenting for centuries (Agrawal et al. 1985: 228-29). Sahi (1979: 366) drew attention to the presence of iron in Chalcolithic deposits at Ahar, and suggested that “the date of the beginning of iron smelting in India may well be placed as early as the sixteenth century BCE” and “by about the early decade of thirteenth century BCE iron smelting was definitely known in India on a bigger scale”. On the basis of four radiocarbon measurements, ranging between 3790 + 110 BP and 3570 + 100 BP, available for the Megalithic period (without iron) Sharma (1992: 64, 67) has proposed a range of 1550-1300 BCE (uncalibrated) for the subsequent iron bearing period at Gufkral (Jammu & Kashmir).
On the basis of this evidence a date of around 1300/1200 BCE has been suggested for the beginning of iron in India and c. 800 BCE for the mid Ganga Valley (Allchin & Allchin 1982: 345; Prakash & Tripathi 1986: 568; Gaur 1997: 240). Chakrabarti (1992: 68, 164; 1999: 333) has observed that at Ahar it would be the first quarter of the second millennium BCE and in Malwa soon after the middle of the second millennium BCE. However, the early dates for iron at Ahar are refuted on the grounds of uncertain stratigraphy (Gaur 1997: 244). As far as Komaranhalli is concerned, it is stated that the TL dates have large errors and hence uncertain (Agrawala 2000: 197, 200).
Table 1. Dates* for early iron-use from Indian sites
* These dates are calibrated by Dr B. Sekar, BSIP, Lucknow. References for datasets used: Stuiver, et al. 1998a. 537
More recently, early contexts containing iron at Jhusi, located on the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna in district Allahabad, have been dated to 1107-844 cal BCE (Tewari et al. 2000: 93). Komaranhalli (Karnataka) has given TL dates in the twelfth – fifteenth century BCE, while the radiocarbon dates for early Iron Age sites of Veerapuram and Ramapuram (Andhra Pradesh) are sixteenth – eleventh century cal BCE (Table 1) (Deo 1991: 193; Moorti 1994: 122-23) while in Vidarbha region (Maharastra), contexts containing iron have given radiocarbon dates between the fourteenth and tenth centuries cal BCE (Table 1).
Recent Findings in Uttar Pradesh
This paper briefly reports the results of some recent excavations conducted by the Uttar Pradesh State Archaeological Department under the leadership of the present author and their implications for understanding the beginning of iron-working in the Central Ganga Plain and the adjacent part of the Vindhyas.
Map showing locations of the Early Iron Age sites in the Central Ganga Plain, the Eastern Vindhyas, and different regions of India.
Painted black-and-red ware shards, from early iron bearing deposits of Period II, Raja Nala-ka-tila, Dist. Sonbhadra.
This has further implications in defining the beginning of iron in the subcontinent as a whole. The excavated sites are Raja Nala-ka-tila (199698), Malhar (1998-99), Dadupur (1999-2001) and Lahuradewa or Lohradewa (2001-2002) (Figure 1) Raja Nala-ka-tila (Lat. 24°41’ 55” N.; Log. 83°19’ E.) is located in the upper reaches of the Karamnasa within its loop like meander in district Sonbhadra. The excavations revealed a sequence which has been divided into four periods (Tewari & Research Srivastava 1997; 1998).
Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II, Raja Nala-ka-tila, Dist. Sonbhadra.
In Period I, no metal was fund and is stratigraphically continuous into Period II. Period III is characterised by the presence of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). Period IV is defined as a Gupta/ post Gupta phase. Iron was found in pre-NBPW deposits (1.5 to 2.00m thick) of Period II in association of the pottery hitherto supposed to be the characteristics of the Chalcolithic period, placed between early to late second millennium BCE, in the area concerned.
The main associated ceramic industries were plain and painted black-and-red black slipped and red wares, in forms which included footed bowl, legged bowl with perforated base, pedestal bowl and button-based goblet. Some sherds also showed cord impressions. Evidence for iron-working included slag and iron artefacts such as a nail, arrowhead, knife and a chisel Radiocarbon dates for the iron bearing deposits range between 1400 and 800 cal BCE.
Table 2. New 14C dates for early iron-use from the Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas
* These dates are calibrated by Dr B. Sekar, BSIP, Lucknow. References for datasets used: Stuiver, et al. 1998a.
Since the date for the introduction of iron in the middle and lower Ganga Valley was being considered as c. 800 BCE (above), its appearance in c. 1400/1300 cal BCE at Raja Nala-ka-tila posed new questions. Realising that this should not be the only site with such early evidence and that there should be examples of experimental iron-smelting which were earlier still, we started a new search. These efforts were rewarded in locating a potential site near a village called Malhar.
Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
Malhar (district Chandauli; Lat. 24°59’ 16” N.; Long. 83°15’ 46” E.) is on the bank of the Karamnasa which at this point flows through a rocky, haematite-rich terrain before joining the Ganga near Banaras. The excavations carried out at this site also revealed a sequence of four periods: defined as Period I: Pre Iron; Period II: Early Iron; Period III: NBPW; Period IV: BCE 200 to 300 AD (Tewari et al. 2000: 69-98). There is no stratigraphic interval between the layers of Period I and Period II. Iron is present in all the layers of Period II,and identified finds include a nail, clamp, spear-head, arrow-head, awl, knife, bangle, sickle and plough share. As well as iron slag, there were tuyeres and several elongated clay structures, with a burnt internal surface. The ceramic industries of this period are represented by mainly red, black-and-red, black slipped, and grey wares. Red ware and black-and-red ware sherds bearing cord impressions on their exterior were found in greater number in the lower levels. The presence of the coarse variety of corded potsherds implies that the iron appeared earlier here than in Period II at Raja Nala-ka-tila. This assumption was endorsed by two radiocarbon dates ranging around 1800 cal. BCE (Table 2).
Important cultural components of the early iron Naugarh kot suggest that large-scale iron bearing deposits, showing corded ware sherds, iron artefact, slag, smelting activities continued at these sites tuyere, stone and bone artefacts, painted and incised potsherds, for a long time. stone and terracotta beads. Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
The area around Malhar may have been something of a centre of iron production. A small mound, of a kind known locally as lohsan or lohsanwa, about 500m south to the main site of Malhar, which looks like a heap of iron slag, on excavation revealed two damaged clay furnaces, one of them is illustrated here as Figure 6, filled with iron slag along with a few sherds of the red, grey, and black slipped wares, an axe, and tuyeres. Survey revealed several lohsanwa sites near Musakhand village, the site known as Phakkada Baba located within the Musakhand dam, to the north-west of Malhar, on Baba Wali Pahari (Tewari et al. 2000) and near Naugarh kot (Singh et al. 2000: 143). Plans of damaged clay furnaces within heaps of iron slag along with tuyeres stuck with smelted iron, and potsherds of the grey, black slipped, NBP and red wares were found at these sites. The pottery assemblage at Phakkada Baba also included examples of dish or bowl-on-stand and other forms, comparable to those from Malhar Period II, in red ware, and black-and-red ware. This extraordinary concentration of iron-slag heaps on Baba Wali Pahari and Naugarh kot suggests that large-scale iron smelting continued at these sites for a long time.
Damaged circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyeres and other waste materials stuck with its body, exposed at lohsanwa mound, Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
As discussed elsewhere (Tewari et al. 2000) the sites at Malhar, the Baba Wali Pahari, and the Valley are archaeologically linked to the area of Geruwatwa Pahar which appears to have been a major source of iron ore. The Geruwatwa Pahar situated to the southeast of the Baba Wali Pahari, is full of hematite. Villagers reported (as a tradition passed down from several generations), that the agarias (a particular tribe known for their iron smelting skills) from Robertsganj side, used to come in this area to procure iron by smelting the hematite. Probably hematite was being primarily smelted at the Baba Wali Pahari and carried over to the valley sites (situated at a distance of about 6-8 km) for secondary smelting. The presence of tuyeres, slags, finished iron artefacts, above-mentioned clay structures with burnt internal surfaces and arms, revealed at Malhar, suggest a large scale activity related to manufacture of iron tools. It appears that smelted iron was being carried to this site to manufacture the artefacts and the clay structures were used as the furnaces for forging purposes. Thus this part of the Karamnasa Valley would have been a regional centre for iron production and the Malhar a workshop-site for the manufacturing of the iron artefacts.
Highly corroded iron arrowhead, Period I, Dadupur, Dist. Lucknow.
Dadupur (26°42’ N: 80°49’ E) is in the valley of the Sai, a minor Gangatributary near Lucknow. It is the earliest dated site (Tewari et al. 2002:111) between the Gomati and the Sai rivers. The excavations at this site have revealed a sequence divided into three periods. The cultural material of Period-I consists of iron artefacts such as the arrowheadm shown in Figure 7. Red ware dominates the pottery assemblage of this period, while the black-and-red ware is nominally represented. Three radiocarbon dates lie between the eighteenth and sixteenth centuries BCE (Table 2). Period II and III are characterised respectively by the presence of Painted Grey Ware (PGW) and NBP ware.
Lahuradewa (district Sant Kabir Nagar; 26°46’ N; 82°-57’E) is in the trans-Sarayu plain, the Sarayu being a major tributary of the Ganga. The excavations have revealed new information regarding the early farming cultures of the Sarayupar region, including evidence for the domestication of rice (Oryza sativa) in Period I, radiocarbon dated to c. sixth and fifth millennium BCE. Associated ceramics include mostly plain and corded, hand made red, and black-and-red, besides, some grey, and black ware sherds. Period II is marked by the appearance of copper. Pottery of the preceding period continued and a new type of pottery, i.e. black slipped ware is added, and the forms include pedestal bowl, and dish or bowl-on-stand. Iron artefacts appear in Period III in the form of corroded nails and other objects. Other components of the assemblage, however, are the same as in Period II. A radiocarbon date obtained for this level was thirteenth – twelfth century BCE (Tewari et al. 2002a: 57) (Table 2).
As per K.S. Saraswat’s observations (pers.comm.), the carbonised material dated from the sites mentioned above included the branches of some trees, such as Acacia sp., Madhuca indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Treura nudiflora, Boswellia serrata, Aegle marmelos, Syzygium sp., Tectona grandis, Butea monosperma, Logerstroemia sp., Bambusaa sp., etc., and the shrubs like Zixiphus sp., Capparis saparia, Carissa opaca. The above species are in mixed content, with the carbonised remains of leaves, stems and seeds of a number of seasonal herbs and grasses. These tropical vegetations referred to above have generally 60-70 yrs of average life span in case of trees and the shrubs and herbs survive hardly from two to three months to the maximum period of a year or two.
There are other observations on the assemblages from these four sites which might be significant. Copper has been found in a lesser proportion in comparison to iron; presence of burnt clay chunks bearing reed and straw marks and postholes are indicative of wattle and daub houses and thatched huts; associated finds include mainly bone arrowheads, terracotta, stone and steatite (?) beads; some storage bins are dug into the surface and bases of the large earthen storage vessels are represented at Lahuradeawa and Raja Nala-ka-tila; a large quantity of faunal and carbonised archaeo-botanical remains have been recovered at all the sites. As a whole the assemblage is suggestive of well equipped and permanent settlements.
These results indicate that iron using and iron working was prevalent in the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas from the early second millennium BCE. The dates obtained so far group into three: three dates between c. 1200-900 cal BCE, three between c. 1400-1200 cal BCE, and five between c. 1800-1500 cal BCE. The types and shapes of the associated pottery are comparable to those to be generally considered as the characteristics of the Chalcolithic Period and placed in early to late second millennium BCE. Taking all this evidence together it may be concluded that knowledge of iron smelting and manufacturing of iron artefacts was well known in the Eastern Vindhyas and iron had been in use in the Central Ganga Plain, at least from the early second millennium BCE. The quantity and types of iron artefacts, and the level of technical advancement indicate that the introduction of iron working took place even earlier. The beginning of the use of iron has been traditionally associated with the eastward migration of the later Vedic people, who are also considered as an agency which revolutionised material culture particularly in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar (Sharma 1983: 117-131). The new finds and their dates suggest that a fresh review is needed. Further, the evidence corroborates the early use of iron in other areas of the country, and attests that India was indeed an independent centre for the development of the working of iron.
I am thankful to Dr Rajagopalan and Dr B.Sekar, Birbal Sahni Institute for Palaeobotany, Lucknow for the determination of 14C dates, to Dr Sekar for the calibration of most of the 14C dates, to Dr KS. Saraswat – a renowned archaeobotanist of the same institution – for the observations regarding the material radiocarbon dated, to Dr P.C. Pant and the Editor, Antiquity for the input to improve the manuscript and to Shri Ram Gopal Mishra and Shri Manmohan Dimri for the figures which illustrate this paper.
AGARWAL, D.P. 2000. Ancient Metal Technology and Archaeology of South Asia. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.
AGRAWAL, D.P., S. KUSUMGAR & R.P. SARNA 1964. Radiocarbon dates of Archaeological samples, Current Science 33: 266-69.
AGRAWAL, O.P., H. NARAIN AND G.P. JOSHI 1985. Iron Objects from South Indian Megaliths (Karnataka)
– A Technological Study and Significance, in Sundara, A. (ed.), Archaeology in Karnataka: 219– 234. Mysore: Directorate of Archaeology & Museums.
ALLCHIN, BRIDGET & RAYMOND 1982. The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge.
BANARJEE, N. R. 1965. The Iron Age in India. Delhi.
CHAKRABARTI, D.K. 1974. Beginning of Iron in India: Problem Reconsidered, in A.K. Ghosh (ed.), Perspectives in Palaeoanthropology: 345-356. Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
–1976. The beginning of iron in India. Antiquity 4: 114-124.
–1992. The Early Use of Iron in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
–1999. India An Archaeological History. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
DEO, S.B. 1991. New Discoveries of Iron Age in India, in C. Margbandhu, K.S. Ramachandran, A.P. Sagar & D.K. Sinha (eds.), Indian Archaeological Heritage I: 189-97. New Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan.
GAUR, R.C. 1997. Studies in Indian Archaeology and Ancient India I. Jaipur: Publication Scheme, pp. 238-250.
GORDON, D.H. 1950. The Early Use of Metals in India and Pakistan, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 55-78.
MOORTI, U.S. 1994. Megalithic Culture of South India: Socio-Economic Perspectives, Varanasi, Ganga Kaveri Publishing House.
NAGARAJARAO, M.S. 1974. Iron Age in South India: Fresh Evidence on Chronology, in A.K. Ghosh (ed.), Perspective in Palaeoanthropology: 357-62. Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
POSSEHL, G.L. & P.C. RISSMAN 1992. The Chronology of Prehistoric India: From Earliest Times to the Iron Age, in R.W. Ehrich (ed.) Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, Vol. I: 465-490; Vol. II: 447-474.Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
PRAKASH, B. & V. TRIPATHI 1986. Iron technology in ancient India, Historical Metallurgy: 568-579.
SAHI, M.D.N. 1979. Iron at Ahar, in D.P. Agrawal &
D.K. Chakrabarti (eds.). Essays in Indian
Protohistory. Delhi: pp. 365-68.
SHARMA, A.K. 1992. Early Iron Users of Gufkral, in Nayak B.U. & N.C. Ghosh (eds.), New Trends in Indian Art and Archaeology I: 63-68. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.
SHARMA, R.S. 1983. Material Culture and Social Formations in Ancient India. Delhi: Macmillan.
SINGH, P., R. TEWARI & R. N. SINGH 2000. Explorations in Chandauli District (U.P.) 19992000: A Preliminary Report, Pragdhara 10: 135148.
SUBRAMANYAM, B.R. 1964. Appearance and Spread of Iron in India – An Appraisal of Archaeological Data, Journal of the Oriental institute, Baroda 13: 349-59.
TEWARI, R., & R. K. SRIVASTAVA 1997. Excavations at Raja Nala-ka-tila (1995-96), District Sonbhadra (U.P.): Preliminary observations, Pragdhara 7: 77
–1998. Excavations at Raja Nala-ka-tila (1996-97) District Sonbhadra (U.P.): Preliminary Observations, Pragdhara 8: 99-105.
TEWARI, R., R.K. SRIVASTAVA, K.S. SARASWAT & K.K. SINGH 2000. Excavations at Malhar, District Chandauli (U.P.) 1999: A Preliminary Report, Pragdhara 10: 69-98.
TEWARI, R., R.K. SRIVASTAVA, & K.K. SINGH 2002. Dadupur Excavations 1999-2000-2001, District Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh: A Preliminary Report, Pragdhara 12: 99-116.
TEWARI, R., R.K. SRIVASTAVA, & K.K. SINGH 2002a. Excavation at Lahuradewa, District Sant Kabir Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, Puratattva 32: 54-62.
WHEELER, R.E.M. 1959. Early India and Pakistan. London.
SHRI RAMA …WAS REAL KING …WHO LIVED AS EXAMPLE OF DHARMA …
Sri Rama was on this earth in 5114 BCE +/- 26,000 years before that or the similar period before that or the one before and so on and so forth..
A solution to the apparent mismatch of dates can be found if we realize that because of a phenomenon known as the ‘Precession of Equinoxes’, stars as visualized from Earth, regain the same positions every 26,000 years!
Outside India, the millenia old story of Rama is still sung by people all over Asia. While traveling to different countries in this part of the world, there are many versions that are even older than the regional ones in India!!
In China, collection of Jatak stories relating to various events of Ramayana, belonging to 251 AD were compiled by Kang Seng Hua based on the Buddhist texts mentioned earlier.
Kumardasa, who ruled Srilanka in 617 BCE wrote the text called ‘Janakiharan’ which is the oldest Sanskrit literature available in Sri lanka.
Oldest written version of Ramayana, in Nepal is from 1075 BCE.
Yama Zatdaw in Myanmar is considered the National epic and is a Burmese version of the story of Rama which has again given theme to dance and art forms including tapestries and puppets.(In fact Burmese people even stress that it is the true history of their land).
Hikayat Seri Rama in Malaysia makes Dashrath the great-grandson of Adam, the first man! (which is not too far from the truth as both Dashrath and Manu, the First Man were from the Suryavanshi/Solar dynasty!),
In the Phra Lak Phra Lam of Laos, Buddha is regarded as an incarnation of Rama (again not completely false as both are incarnations of Lord Vishnu!).
Reamker, is the most famous story of Khmer Literature of Cambodia and is the source of classical dance, theater, poetry and of course the famous sculptures of Angkor Wat. Various rock inscriptions belonging to about 700 CE are also found in the Khmer region of Cambodia.
Maradia Lawana in the Phillipines is based on the Ramayana,
Ramakavaca in Bali is a major source of moral and spiritual guidance for the island and forms the basic story line of Balinese traditional dance,
Kakawin Ramayana in Java, Indonesia (9th century CE) is a mixture of Sanskrit and Kawi languages and is the basis of traditional Indonesian ballet and performances that are famous the world over.
Ramakien in Thailand is again considered the National epic and adds an element of incest to the story by making Sita the daughter of Ravan and Mandodari who is thrown away in the Sea as she is prophesied to bring destruction to Ravan’s Kingdom!!