How India Went From World’s Education Capital to Depths of Illiteracy – Part II

Link to original post by Suhana Singh

student who completed basic education in ancient India and wished to learn more, had a plethora of institutions to choose from, depending on whether he wanted to specialise in the Vedas, logic, medicine, sciences, classical music or any other subject. Thus, a student who wanted to learn classical music could, for instance, move to Varanasi and learn from the maestros in the city’s ancient college of music. If he found a friend keen on studying in Varanasi’s college of astronomy, then perhaps the two could travel together. Travelling was a risky proposition in those days when the land was covered with forests abounding in predators, and parents would celebrate when their children returned home after four to 12 years of higher education.

In the Kathasaritsagara, there is a reference to a Brahmin, who decided not to send his son for further studies to Nalanda or Varanasi, which were closer to his place of residence in the Ganga plains and instead took the risk of choosing a far-off Valabhi university located in today’s Gujarat (Bose, 1990). Valabhi’s graduates were known to secure employment in government services. Its courses in political science (niti) and business (varta) were well known alongside religious studies of Hinayana Buddhism (Apte).

An interesting reference to co-education is found in the Sanskrit play Malatimadhava written by Bhavabhuti (in the eighth century) where a female student Kamandaki is indicated to be a classmate and close friend of male students Bhurivasu and Devarata at a famous university in Padmavati. All three characters hail from different regions. (Mirashi, 1996)

There seems to have been a remarkable mobility of students and teachers across the universities of ancient India. Thus, we find professors in Nalanda, such as Sthiramati and Gunamati who had earlier established Valabhi University in the west. Dinnaga and Dharmapala, two famous scholars of Nalanda were both natives of Kanchipuram in the south. Ratnavajra, a noted professor at Vikramshila hailed from Kasmira (Kashmir). Xuanzang himself, after finishing his studies in Nalanda went to teach in Orissa upon receiving a directive from King Harsha (Mookerjee, 1960). The famous Bhaskara II, hailed by some as the greatest mathematician ever, taught at Ujjaini, but hailed from Bijapur in the south (Puttaswamy, 2012). Clearly, many of the learned people of yore travelled to centres of excellence in their areas of interest.

Bhaskara II, head of the astronomical observatory at the famous Ujjaini University in central India was a native of Bijapur in southern India.

Funding of higher education

An interesting aspect about the education system was that it was subsidised for pupils and teachers by the ruling kings as well as communities that lived around universities. The Nalanda University was described by Xuanzang as having been endowed with buildings and lands by ruling kings of the time. He also mentions that the revenues of 100 villages were allocated for meeting the expenses of the university. The students and teachers received clothes, food, bedding and medicine free of cost. (Mookerjee, 1960)

However, according to the Jatakas, students who wished to study at Takshshila were required to either pay their tuition fees at the beginning or if they lacked cash, to pay in the form of services to the teacher, such as bringing firewood. Most Brahmin students were too poor to pay upfront and would opt to carry out menial tasks. Some would get permission to pay at the end of their studies, and there were instances of Brahmin students soliciting financial assistance from households. We also hear of some winning state scholarships and not being required to pay any fees. Often, families living around the universities would generously host meals at their residences for the students. (Mookerjee, 1960)

There was a well-established ecosystem to support learning. Since the ethos of the times demanded that Brahmin scholars lead a simple life engaged in the pursuit of knowledge without amassing riches, it fell upon the shoulders of wealthy non-Brahmin families as well as humble farmers to support those who were devoting their entire lives to learning and teaching (Hazra, 1987).

Graduating the Indian way: Samavartana

Given that ancient Indians set so much store by learning, it should not come as a surprise that they had a meaningful rite of passage to mark the graduation of students, called Samavartana or Snana. In the presence of students, teachers and invited guests, the graduating student would offer his guru-dakshina (gift to guru), after which the guru would recite the snataka-dharma from the Taittiriya Upanishad. This would be followed by a homa (fire ritual) and snana (ceremonial bath). (Kane, 1941)

The Snataka Dharma recitation from Shiksha Valli in the Taittiriya Upanishad was an important ritual in the graduation ceremony.

A partial translation of the Snataka Dharma recitation is as follows:

Never deviate from Truth,

Never deviate from Dharma,

Never neglect your well-being,

Never neglect worldly activities (for gain and welfare),

Never neglect Svādhyāya (self study) and Pravachana (teaching of Vedas).

 

We all know the famous shloka

Maatru devo bhava,

Pitru devo bhava

Acharya devo bhava

Atithi devo bhava

This verse stating that one’s mother, father, teacher and a visiting guest are all equivalent to Devata comes from the Taittiriya Upanishad, which also was recited during the Samavartana. Equipped with holistic knowledge and blessings from the guru, a graduate or vidya-snataka (one who is bathed in learning) would be ready for the next stage of life – usually teaching and of course, marriage.

The temple universities of India

Photo courtesy Kanniks Kannikeswaran

An interesting aspect about ancient Indian temples is that often, they became centres of knowledge dissemination and debating. There was a continuity of learning with conferences and assemblies of learned scholars that have been mentioned in the Rig Veda itself, for disseminating the philosophies that form the core of Vedic literature.  Well-endowed temples became magnets attracting students and teachers, which led to annexes being built for the temples and even entire colonies housing intellectuals from a variety of disciplines.

Multiple inscriptions on several temples of southern India reveal the extent to which higher education had got institutionalised. Ennayiram is one such location in Tamil Nadu, which abounds in inscriptions giving minute details related to the subjects taught, number of students, endowments and so on. For example, an inscription from the time of Rajendra Chola I (11th century) lays out the endowments given for the boarding and tuition of 340 students studying at a Vedic college. The college received 45 velis (300 acres) of land. Each student of Veda was noted to cost 6 Nalis of paddy per day and ½ Kalanju of gold per year. A student studying the more advanced Vedanta, Mimamsa or Vyakarana got 66% more. Meanwhile, a teacher was noted to receive a meal allowance equivalent to that of 16 students per day. The inscription notes that 75 students were studying the Rig Veda, 75 Yajur Veda, 10 Atharva Veda, 20 Chandoga Saman, 20 Talavakara Saman, 20 Vajasaneya, 25 Vyakarana, 35 Prabhakara Mimamsa, 10 Baudhayaneya Grihya, Kalpa and Gana, 40 Rupavatara and 10 Vedanta (Mookerjee, 1960). In 2013, archaeologists found more lines of inscriptions in the basement of a temple in Ennayiram (Subramanian, 2003). Clearly, there is a lot more waiting to be unearthed.

A temple inscription in Ennayiram, Tamil Nadu describing a college attached to a temple along with a hostel and hospital. Photo courtesy: Tamil Nadu Tourism (http://tamilnadu-favtourism.blogspot.sg)

Even the medical care of students was accounted for. Some inscriptions describe colleges with attached hospitals and hostels. One hospital is described to have 15 beds, a physician, a surgeon, two errand boys and two nurses. It was even equipped with a pharmacy with medicines such as Haritaki, Bilvadighrita, Vajra-kalpa and Kalyanalavana. (Mookerjee, 1960)

Ancient academies of excellence

Apart from temples, there was the ghatika, the agrahara and the mathha. Ghatikas were groups of learned acharyas, which carried out deep discussions on Vedic matters. Ghatikas are said to have played a key part in making Kanchipuram (also called Kanchi) a hub of Vedic studies. They even played a pivotal role in the selection of kings. Numerous poet-scholars and saint-philosophers who produced the finest of Tamil literary works are associated with Kanchi (Rao, 2008). As we have seen earlier, some of the brightest went on to teach in famed universities in other parts of India.

Agraharas were entire settlements of learned Brahmins with their own rules of governance and were funded by generous donors (usually non-Brahmins).  Mathhas were also educational institutions and along with Agraharas served like modern academies of excellence (Mookerjee, 1960).

Agraharas were entire settlements of learned Brahmins. Photo courtesy incredibleindiaphotogallery.com

Inscription after inscription in southern India talks of the revenues of villages being entirely allocated for supporting agraharas with Brahmin scholars sometimes numbering 108, sometimes 308. The revenues were to be used in supporting the sacred task of learning and teaching, which included building libraries called “Sarasvati Bhandara” (Mookerjee, 1960). The learned Brahmins, who often held titles such as Chaturvedin,

Trivedin, Somayajin, Shadangavid, Bhatta, Kramavid, Sarvakratuyajin and Vajapeyin, which denoted their specialisation in different texts. Mookerjee puts it eloquently when he says:

“These learned settlements were centres of light and life, showing how theory and practice should go together, how precept should be supported by example, ethics by conduct, learning was to be lived and truth or religion was to be realised in the activities of daily life.”

 It is important to highlight the contribution of the Kerala school of mathematics and astronomy (14th to 15th century) in the context of Indian systems of advanced learning. Concentrated in a geographical area around Thrissur in Kerala, a rich tradition of mathematics developed and flourished amongst the Namboodri Brahmins. They discovered the infinite series, which laid the foundation for calculus centuries before Newton. There is strong circumstantial evidence that Jesuit missionaries who visited India in the 15thcentury carried back mathematical concepts from Kerala to Europe (Joseph, 2000).

The brilliant scholars of Kerala were believed to be mainly motivated by the mysteries of astronomy. However, George Gheverghese Joseph, in his famous book The Crest of the Peacock – The non-European Roots of Mathematics argues that these mathematicians seem to have revelled in their love for pure mathematics. Why else would Madhava (the founder of the Kerala School) indulge in long and tedious calculations of sine tables to 12 decimal places?

Famous names associated with the Kerala School are Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. GG Joseph points out that some non-Brahmins such as Sankara Variyar and Acyuta Pisarati were also part of the Kerala School and many from “lower” castes, such as carpenters, construction workers and artisans were conversant with precise calculations, indicating that the symbiotic society did not fit into the neat framework of the caste system envisaged by modern researchers.

How Indian scholars transferred knowledge to China

In the first century CE, Chinese emperor Ming-Ti sent 18 persons to study Buddhist doctrines in India. When they returned, they took back many books and also two Buddhist scholars Kasyapa Matanga and Dharmaratna. Kasyapa was in Gandhara, when he was invited by the Chinese envoy. His journey from Gandhara to China was fraught with hardship as he passed through the steep mountains of Chinese Turkestan and the harsh Gobi desert. There was also a language problem. However, the two pioneering scholars persevered and opened up opportunities for hundreds of professors from Indian universities to work in China. A large number of Sanskrit manuscripts were carried to China. Among the well-known Indians who migrated in the first three centuries were Samghavarma, Dharmasatya, Dharmakala, Mahabala, Vighna, Dharmaphala, Kalasivi, Kalaruchi and Lokaraksha (Mookerjee, 1960).

Kashmir, which was a prominent centre of Buddhist learning supplied a steady stream of erudite scholars to China. One such scholar Gunavarman from Kashmir’s royal family first went to Ceylon and Java where he made a name for himself. The Chinese emperor invited him to China, personally received him in Nanking, became his disciple and built a temple for him. A few scholars from southern India also got pulled to China, such as Dharmaruchi who lived in China for 20 years between 693 to 713 CE and translated 53 works into Chinese (Mookerjee, 1960).

Hundreds of Sanskrit works were painstakingly translated into Chinese by the Indian scholars with the help of Chinese intellectuals. It was a mammoth task considering the totally different syntax and structure of the two languages and many scholars even recorded their struggle and discomfort.

The first printed book in China was the Indian treatise Vajjra-Chhedika-Prajna-Paramita Sutra (or the famous Diamond Sutra), which was translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva in 402CE. Kumarajiva was prodigiously talented.  He studied in Kashmir, Kashgar and Koutcha, and it is said there was a battle for his services between the King of Koutcha and the Chinese Emperor, whose general imprisoned him. For 12 years, Kumarajiva translated more than 100 Sanskrit works, which are considered masterpieces of Chinese literature! He is also known as the teacher of the famous Chinese traveller Fa-Hien (Mookerjee, 1960).

Statue of Kumarajiva in front of Kizil Caves, Kuqa, Xinjiang, China. Photo Courtesy Yoshi Canopus

Unlike Kumarajiva, another scholar, Dharmakshema’s life was cut short by an assassin, when two Chinese rulers competed for his services. Reference is also found to a well-travelled and much-in-demand scholar Amoghavajra who earned titles such as Prajna-moksha and Tripitika Bhadanta from a Chinese emperor. The poor man was made to return from the shores of India the very moment he landed back in the year 749 because the Chinese emperor decided there was little time to be lost. It is not just in modern timelines that employees get called back from vacations by hard-hearted bosses. Amoghavajra collected more than 500 texts from different parts of India to take back to China and translated at least 77 works, including Dharanis and Tantras. In China, he is known as the founder of Tantrik Buddhism (Mookerjee, 1960).

Several Indian mathematicians and astronomers from the best universities held high positions in China’s scientific establishments. One Indian scientist called Gautama Siddha (Qutan Xida in Chinese) became the president of China’s official board of astronomy in the 8th century. He translated the Indian navagraha calendar into Chinese. He also introduced Indian numerals into China. The invention of printing is also attributed to Buddhist scholars who went from India to China and printing was used as a means to spread Buddhist thought. (Sen, 2009)

Knowledge transfers from India to Greece, Islamic world and Europe

The antiquity of civilisation and the ecosystems set up for the propagation of knowledge turned India into a veritable garden with exquisite flowers that attracted honeybees. Royle, in an essay on the antiquity of “Hindoo medicine” mentions Barzouyeh, a royal physician in the court of Persian King Khosrau (531-579 CE), who returned from India with medical texts as well as a variety of herbs and who was proficient in Sanskrit (Royle, 1837). There was a thriving trade between India and western Asia in ancient times, which involved not just spices and textiles, but also medicines.

In his talks on the antiquity of Indian medical systems, Raj Vedam, co-founder of Indian History Awareness and Research has laid out the trajectory by which the knowledge of Ayurveda was transmitted from India to Greeks/Romans, the Islamic world and then Europe. He points out how the scientific concepts articulated by the Indian Rishi Kanada (6th Century BCE), for example, were taken up by the Greek philosopher Democritus (4th Century BCE). According to Bertrand Russell, Democritus travelled widely and had visited Egypt and Persia “in search of knowledge”. Hippocrates, considered the father of western medicine was a student of Democritus.

Excerpt from page 62 of JF Royle’s “An Essay on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medicine Including an Introductory lecture to the Course of Materia Medica and Therapeutics delivered at the King’s College”

Dr Vedam also states that the library of Alexandria played a major role in transmitting texts from the East to the West.  It has been well chronicled that the library administrators went to any extent (“buy, borrow or steal”) to get the “most original, most authoritative copies” (Philips, 2010). The Materia Medica compiled by Greek physician Dioscorides during 50 to 70CE, which was used for 16 centuries in Europe, contains a large number of Indian herbs (Vedam, 2016). Another data point offered by Dr Vedam is the fleeing of Nestorians to Persia to escape the persecution of the Christian Church and from there to Kerala in the fifth century that served to transmit Indian medical knowledge back to Syria.

The fifth Abbasid Caliph Haroun Al Rashid had an Indian physician Manka in his court, who translated ancient India’s indispensable medical text – the Sushruta Samhita into Persian. The imprint of Indian scholars on Islamic sciences, not just medicine has been well-acknowledged by the Islamic scholars such as Alberuni themselves. Indian scholars were often invited to Baghdad. The works of Muslim intellectuals such as Al Kindi, Al Farabi, Al Farghani, Al Tabari and Al Khwarizmi played a paramount role in transferring Indic knowledge of mathematics, medicine, astronomy, philosophy, chemistry and even music to the Islamic world (Khan, 2009). While the Islamic scholars often credited their knowledge to Indic sources, the European scholars often plagiarised from Arabic texts without references. The Renaissance was propelled by the works of Arabic scholars, which were passed off as original works by Europeans (Hasse, 2016).

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Toledo School of Translators in Spain employed many scholars to translate major Arabic works into Latin (Bronowski, 2011). These translators produced a prolific output and helped to transfer a substantial amount of ancient Indian knowledge to Europe. The transfers continued with even greater intensity during the colonial period from the 14th century onwards when the contents of hundreds and hundreds of Indian books made their way into monographs and books in Europe. A catalogue of the Indian books and manuscripts that were translated into European languages during this period would itself form a bulky book! A case in point is the Bibliotheca Malabarica, a catalogue of over 100 Tamil manuscripts collected by the missionary Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg during his first two years in India (1706–1708).

Garcia D’Orta, Portuguese traveller to India wrote a detailed treatise “Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India” on the medicinal plants of India in 1563. Photo Courtesy Martins Correia.

We have seen how India’s ancient systems of education helped to fuel a knowledge revolution around the world. However, in the 11th century, marauding incursions by Muslim invaders disrupted the idyllic world of university learning in India. This was followed by European colonisation, which led to further erosion and degeneration of India’s traditional learning systems. All this and more will be discussed in the next article, which will conclude this series.

The author would like to acknowledge the valuable inputs of the members of Indian History Awareness and Research (IHAR) and specially thank Kanniks Kannikeswaran for supplying pictures from his personal collection.

Bibliography

Apte, D. Universities in Ancient India.

Bose, M. (1990). A Social and Cultural History of Ancient India. Concept Publishing Company.

Bronowski, J. (2011). The Ascent of Man. BBC Books.

Hasse, D. N. (2016). Success and Suppression: Arabic Sciences and Philiosophy in the Renaissance. Harvard University Press.

Hazra, R. C. (1987). Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs. Motilal Banarsidass.

Joseph, G. G. (2000). Crest of the Peacock, Non-European Roots of Mathematics. Princeton University Press.

Kane, P. (1941). History of Dharmashastras Vol II, Part I. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.

Khan, M. (2009). Islamic Jihad – A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism and Slavery. iUniverse.

Mirashi, V. V. (1996). Bhavabuti. Motilal Banarsidass.

Mookerjee, R. K. (1960). Ancient Indian Education – Brahminical and Buddhist. Motilal Banarsidass.

Muller, M. Lectures on the Science of Knowledge delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in April, May and June 1861, 1868.

Philips, H. (2010). The Great Library of Alexandria?

Puttaswamy, T. (2012). Mathematical Achievements of Pre-Modern Indian Mathematicians. Elsevier.

Rao, P. N. (2008). Kanchipuram: Land of Legends, Saints and Temples. Readworthy Publications.

Royle, J. F. (1837). An Essay on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medicine Including an Introductory lecture to the Course of Materia Medica and Therapeutics delivered at the King’s College. Allen.

Russell, B. (1972). History of Western Philosophy. Simon & Schuster.

Saraswati, S. D. (2016). Taittiriya Upanishad. Arsha Vidya Research and Publication Trust.

Sen, A. (2009). The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity. Allen Lane.

Subramanian, P. (2003). 100 year old, long Tamil inscription found.

Vedam, R. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtoXaR7wgiI. (2016). Lecture on Antiquity of Indian Medical Systems [Youtube Video].

Disclaimer: The facts and opinions expressed within this article are the personal opinions of the author. IndiaFacts does not assume any responsibility or liability for the accuracy, completeness,suitability,or validity of any information in this article.

Sahana Singh writes on environmental (water) issues, current affairs and Indian history. She is a member of Indian History Awareness and Research (IHAR), and has recently authored “The Educational Heritage of Ancient India – How An Ecosystem of Learning Was Laid to Waste”.

#Instanbul #Shem #RocketShip: Is this a replica (see photo) of an #ancient single-seat rocket-ship? That’s what it looks like to Zecharia Sitchin, the leading authority and scholar on the Ancient Astronaut theory. Hidden away in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum in Turkey for a quarter of a century, Sitchin recently convinced the Museum that this artifact may indeed be ancient, and not the modern forgery they concluded it must be, simply because our current view of our ancient history doesn’t include rocket-ships. In his article in Atlantis Rising Magazine, Issue 15, Sitchin describes this object as,”a sculpted scale model of what, to modern eyes, looks like a cone-nosed rocket-ship… Powered by a cluster of four exhaust engines in the back surrounding a larger exhaust engine, the rocket-ship has room for a sole pilot—actually shown and included in the sculpture.” He describes the pilot as sitting with legs folded toward his chest, and wearing a one-piece “ribbed pressure suit” which becomes boots at the feet, and gloves at the hands, and points out that since the pilot’s head is missing, we cannot know whether the pilot wore a helmet, goggles, or other headgear. The artifact measures 23 centimeters long, 9.5 cm high, 8 cm wide, or 5.7 inches long, 3.8 inches high, and 3.5 inches wide.Sitchin spent years tracking down the artifact, until he located it at the #Archaeology #Museum in #Istanbul. It was excavated at #Toprakkale, a city known in ancient times as Tuspa, where the kingdom of Urartu reigned briefly over 2500 years ago. The museum curators decided this small artifact must be a forgery because it differs from the era’s style, and more importantly, it looks like a space capsule. They reasoned that since there were no space capsules in ancient times, it must be a modern fake, a practical joke, made of plaster of Paris and marble powder.from “De Goden en de Broederschappen” However, during Sitchin’s visit to Istanbul and the Museum in September 1997, he met with the Director, Dr. Pasinli, who took the artifact from a drawer, and allowed Sitchin to examine and photograph it. It looked to Sitchin to be carved from a porous, volcanic ash stone, the details very precise. Dr. Pasinli asked Sitchin what he thought. It is not out of context, Sitchin told the Director and his colleagues, when you view various artifacts that also seem to represent an ancient, space faring civilization. In Sitchin’s “The Lost Realms,” you’ll find illustrations of artifacts that may represent bearded spacemen and rocket-ships from Mexico, and from Lebanon, what might be a rocket-ship on a landing platform. He advised the Museum directors to allow viewers to decide for themselves what it is, while stating their own doubt about the artifact’s authenticity.This was enough to convince the curators to finally put the object on public display. Be sure to have a look for yourself next time you are in Istanbul.These beings who rode in these spaceships where either the good gods who were with #Yahweh the creator, or the #serpent men that #rebelled against Yahweh.

Pushpadanta – The author of the Shiva Mahima Stotra

Pushpadanta – The author of the Shiva Mahima Stotra
Long ago, there lived a gandharva by name Pushpadanta. Gandharvas were powerful magical beings, who could move in air and could even turn invisible to humans. Pushpadanta was an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva and was a great scholar and a poet. Because of his singing skills, Pushpadanta was appointed as the divine musician in the court of Lord Indra, the King of the Devas.
As a devotee of Lord Shiva, Pushpadanta loved worshiping Lord Shiva with plenty of different flowers.
Once as Pushpadanta was traveling around the world, he arrived at the kingdom of King Chitraratha. Pushpadanta was struck with the beauty of the kingdom. Slowly as he watched the kingdom he was stunned, the kingdom was surrounded by the most beautiful gardens and the flowers there was lovely to look at. He went to the palace of Chitraratha and was amazed to find the flowers even more beautiful there. When Pushpadanta saw the garden, he was unable to stop himself. He plucked as many flowers as possible…Pushpadanta felt bad that he was stealing flowers, but he could not help himself when he saw the flowers.
King Chitraratha to whom the gardens belonged, was also a devotee of Lord Shiva. He had developed this garden to pluck the flowers and use them for worshiping Lord Shiva daily.
However that day when he came to the gardens to worship Lord Shiva, he stared blankly as he saw most of the flowers gone. King Chitraratha called his guards, ‘What…What happened to the flowers?’
The guards looked nervously at each other and then at the king, ‘Sir! We do not know…We did not take it…We were doing the rounds of the palace. When we came…’ The guard shook his head, ‘the flowers were missing, your majesty!’
King Chitraratha looked at the guards and realized that they were telling the truth. He frowned as he plucked the pitifully few flowers from the tree. He finished his prayers that day and the next day appointed more guards to guard his gardens…
However much to his surprise, he looked at the shame faced guards the next day and saw most of the flowers missing today too! King Chitraratha fumed. After his prayers, he thought for some time.
He looked at the gardens and saw around saw all the other trees. He angrily called his guards, ‘Guard! Get those leaves and bring them here…’ He said pointing at the bilpatra plants.
The guards gathered the leaves and brought them before the king. ‘Spread them around the trees having the flowers….This way…When anyone walks over them, the leaves will rustle…you live hear the noise and be able to catch the thief…’ The king barked.
The guards nodded and spread the leaves around the trees.
The next day, Pushpadanta came inside the garden by becoming invisible. As he was walking towards the trees, he unknowingly stepped on the bilpatra leaves….
Up in Kailash, Lord Shiva was disturbed from his meditation. The bilpatra leaves were used to worship Lord Shiva and they were his favourite leaves. Lord Shiva frowned as he realized that someone had stepped on the leaves…Lord Shiva closed his eyes and used the powers to find out who had stepped on the bilpatra leaves. He opened his eyes as he realized that it was Pushpadanta. If it was a human who had committed this error, I would have forgiven him…but a gandharva…they are supposed to beings from heavens….they are supposed to know all this…’ Lord Shiva was angry as he thought… That man does not deserve to be a gandharva…And he is stealing the flowers from another…He is doing all this because he is invisible…Fine! I will take away his powers of being invisible and his powers to fly…
Back on earth, Pushpadanta was going towards the trees, when the guards, who had the rustling of the leaves ran towards the sound to find a tall gandharva coming towards the trees and plucking the flowers without any fear! They attacked the gandharva.
Pushpadanta was so amazed that the humans could see him that he was not able to defend himself. The guards caught him and took him to their king. King Chitraratha put Pushpadanta in prison.
As Pushpadanta was in prison, Pushpadanta slowly realized why he had suddenly become visible…The bilpatra leaves…Pushpadanta knew that he was made Lord Shiva very angry….
Anxious to regain his powers, Pushpadanta composed a sloka in favour of Lord Shiva. The sloka was beautiful to listen to…When Lord Shiva heard the sloka he was so pleased and that readily forgave the gandharva. This sloka is called as the Mahimnastava. The sloka is full of beautiful thoughts and meanings.
After Lord Shiva forgave Pushpadanta, Pushpadanta got back his powers. Pushpadanta met the King Chitraratha and asked for the king’s forgiveness. He promised that he would never steal again. The king was also amazed that the sloka composed by Pushpadanta and readily forgave him.
However the story of Pushpadanta does not end there. After composing the sloka, Pushpadanta grew very proud…He thought that he had written a sloka which was admired even by Lord Shiva.
He felt proud and boasted to everyone about how great his slokas were….Lord Shiva heard about this and came and talked him. ‘Pushpadanta! Do you know my temples, always have a Nandi outside…Why don’t you just go and peak inside Nandi’s mouth?
Pushpadanta was wondering why the Lord was making such a weird request…He went and looked inside Nandi’s mouth. Pushpadanta was taken aback to find that the entire sloka that he had composed was engraved in tiny letters in the teeth inside Nandi’s mouth!
Flabbergasted he ran back to Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva smiled and explained to him, ‘You are not the author of anything, Pushpadanta…It is the Brahman, which flows through you….All of this was written long ago…You are an instrument of the sloka coming out…’
Pushpandanta realized that he had been wrong in being proud of his composition, when he could not call the sloka his own composition. Pushpadanta asked the forgiveness of Lord Shiva and went back home and wiser man!

From Hinduism forgotten facts. 

ब्राह्मण के साथ भेदभाव, अत्याचार

सवर्णों में एक जाति आती है #ब्राह्मण, जिस पर

सदियों से राक्षस, पिशाच, दैत्य, यवन, मुगल, अंग्रेज, कांग्रेस, सपा, बसपा, वामपंथी, भाजपा, सभी राजनीतिक पार्टियाँ, विभिन्न जातियाँ आक्रमण करते आ रहे हैं।

आरोप ये लगे कि ~ब्राह्मणों ने #जाति का बँटवारा किया।

उत्तर – सबसे प्राचीन ग्रंथ वेद जो अपौरुषेय है और जिसका संकलन वेद व्यास जी ने किया, जो #मल्लाहिन के गर्भ से उत्पन्न हुए थे।

18 पुराण, महाभारत, गीता सब #व्यास जी रचित है

जिसमें वर्णव्यवस्था और जाति व्यवस्था दी गयी है।

रचनाकार व्यास ब्राह्मण जाति से नही थे।

ऐसे ही #कालीदास आदि कई कवि जो वर्णव्यवस्था और जातिव्यवस्था के पक्षधर थे जन्मजात ब्राह्मण नहीं थे।

अब मेरा प्रश्न सभी विरोध करने वालो से—

कोई एक भी ग्रन्थ का नाम बताओ जिसमें जाति

व्यवस्था लिखी गयी हो और उसे ब्राह्मण ने लिखा हो?

शायद एक भी नही मिलेगा। मुझे पता है तुम #मनु स्मृति का ही नाम लोगे, जिसके लेखक मनु महाराज थे, जो कि #क्षत्रिय थे।

मनु स्मृति जिसे आपने कभी पढ़ा ही नही और पढ़ा भी तो टुकड़ों में कुछ श्लोकों को जिसके कहने का प्रयोजन कुछ अन्य होता है और हम समझते अपने विचारानुसार है।

मनु स्मृति पूर्वाग्रह रहित होकर सांगोपांग पढ़े।

छिद्रान्वेषण की अपेक्षा गुणग्राही बनकर पढ़ने पर

स्थिति स्पष्ट हो जाएगी।

अब रही बात ” ब्राह्मणों “ने क्या किया ?तो नीचे पढ़े।

(1)#यन्त्रसर्वस्वम् (इंजीनियरिंग का आदि ग्रन्थ)- भरद्वाज

(2)#वैमानिक शास्त्रम् (विमान बनाने हेतु) – भरद्वाज

(3)#सुश्रुतसंहिता (सर्जरी चिकित्सा)-सुश्रुत

(4)#चरकसंहिता (चिकित्सा)-चरक

(5)#अर्थशास्त्र (जिसमें सैन्यविज्ञान, राजनीति,

युद्धनीति, दण्डविधान, कानून आदि कई महत्वपूर्ण

विषय है)-कौटिल्य

(6)#आर्यभटीयम् (गणित)-आर्यभट्ट

ऐसे ही छन्दशास्त्र, नाट्यशास्त्र, शब्दानुशासन,

परमाणुवाद, खगोल विज्ञान, योगविज्ञान सहित

प्रकृति और मानव कल्याणार्थ समस्त विद्याओं का संचय अनुसंधान एवं प्रयोग हेतु ब्राह्मणों ने अपना पूरा जीवन भयानक जंगलों में, घोर दरिद्रता में बिताए।

उसके पास दुनियाँ के प्रपंच हेतु समय ही कहाँ शेष था?

कोई बताएगा समस्त विद्याओं में प्रवीण होते हुए भी, सर्वशक्तिमान् होते हुए भी ब्राह्मण ने पृथ्वी का भोग करने हेतु गद्दी स्वीकारा हो?

विदेशी मानसिकता से ग्रसित कुछ विचारको ने गलत तरीके से तथ्य पेश किये। आजादी के बाद #इतिहास संरचना इनके हाथों सौपी गयी और ये विदेश संचालित षड्यन्त्रों के तहत देश मे भ्रम फैलाने लगे।

ब्राह्मण हमेशा ये चाहता रहा कि राष्ट्र शक्तिशाली

हो, अखण्ड हो,न्याय व्यवस्था सुदृढ़ हो।

सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिन:सर्वे सन्तु निरामया:

सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु मा कश्चित् दु:ख भाग्भवेत्।।

का मन्त्र देने वाला ब्राह्मण,वसुधैव कुटुम्बकम् का पालन करने वाला ब्राह्मण, सर्वदा काँधे पर जनेऊ कमर में लंगोटी बाँधे एक गठरी में लेखनी, मसि, पत्ते, कागज और पुस्तक लिए चरैवेति चरैवेति का अनुसरण करता रहा। मन में एक ही भाव था लोक कल्याण।

ऐसा नहीं कि लोक कल्याण हेतु मात्र ब्राह्मणों ने ही काम किया। बहुत सारे ऋषि, मुनि, विद्वान्, महापुरुष अन्य वर्णों के भी हुए जिनका महत् योगदान रहा है।

किन्तु आज ब्राह्मण के विषय में ही इसलिए कह रहा हूँ कि जिस देश की शक्ति के संचार में ब्राह्मणों के त्याग तपस्या का इतना बड़ा योगदान रहा।

जिसने मुगलों यवनों, अंग्रेजों और राक्षसी प्रवृत्ति के लोंगों का भयानक अत्याचार सहकर भी यहाँ की संस्कृति और ज्ञान को बचाए रखा।

वेदों शास्त्रों को जब जलाया जा रहा था तब

ब्राह्मणों ने पूरा का पूरा वेद और शास्त्र #कण्ठस्थ

करके बचा लिया और आज भी वो इसे नई पीढ़ी में संचारित कर रहे है वे सामान्य कैसे हो सकते है?

उन्हे सामान्य जाति का कहकर #आरक्षण के नाम पर सभी सरकारी सुविधाओं से रहित क्यों रखा जाता है ?

ब्राह्मण अपनी रोजी रोटी कैसे चलाये ? ब्राह्मण/

सामान्य वर्ग को देना पड़ता है पढ़ाई के लिए सबसे ज्यादा फीस और सरकारी सारी सुविधाएँ obc, sc, st, अल्पसंख्यक के नाम पर पूँजीपति या गरीब के नाम पर अयोग्य लोंगों को दी जाती है।

मैं अन्य जाति विरोधी नही हूँ लेकिन किसी ने

ब्राह्मण/सामान्य वर्ग से भेद भाव के विरूद्ध अवश्य हूं।

इस देश में गरीबी से नहीं जातियों से लड़ा जाता है। एक ब्राह्मण/सामान्य वर्ग के लिए सरकार कोई रोजगार नही देती कोई सुविधा नही देती।

एक ब्राह्मण बहुत सारे #व्यवसाय नही कर सकता जैसे — पोल्ट्रीफार्म, अण्डा, मांस, मुर्गीपालन, कबूतरपालन, बकरी, गदहा,ऊँट, सूअरपालन, मछलीपालन, जूता,चप्पल, शराब आदि, बैण्डबाजा और विभिन्न जातियों के पैतृक व्यवसाय क्योंकि उसका धर्म एवं समाज दोनों ही इसकी अनुमति नही देते।

ऐसा करने वालों से उनके समाज के लोग सम्बन्ध नहीबनाते।

वो शारीरिक #परिश्रम करके अपना पेट पालना चाहे तो उसे मजदूरी नही मिलती, क्योंकि तमाम लोग ब्राह्मण से सेवा कराना उचित नही समझते है।

हाँ उसे अपना घर छोड़कर दूर मजदूरी, दरवानी आदि करने के लिए जाना पड़ता है। कुछ को मजदूरी मिलती है कुछ को नहीं।

अब सवाल उठता है कि ऐसा हो क्यों रहा है? जिसने संसार के लिए इतनी कठिन तपस्या की उसके साथ इतना बड़ा अन्याय क्यों?जिसने शिक्षा को बचाने के लिए सर्वस्व त्याग दिया उसके साथ इतनी भयानक ईर्ष्या क्यों?

मैं बताना चाहूँगा कि ब्राह्मण को किसी जाति विशेष से द्वेष नही होता है। उन्होंने शास्त्रों को जीने का प्रयास किया है अत: जातिगत छुआछूत को पाप मानते है।

मेरा सबसे निवेदन –गलत तथ्यों के आधार पर उन्हें क्यों सताया जा रहा है ?उनके धर्म के प्रतीक शिखा और #यज्ञोपवीत, वेश भूषा का मजाक क्यों बनाया जा रहा हैं ?

#मन्त्रों और पूजा पद्धति का #उपहास क्यों किया जा रहा है ?

विश्व की सबसे समृद्ध और एकमात्र वैज्ञानिक भाषा #संस्कृत को हम भारतीय हेय दृष्टि से क्यों देखते है?

हर युग में ब्राह्मण के साथ #भेदभाव, #अत्याचार होता

आया है आखिर क्यों?

Vedic scriptures and culture.


Revealed Vedic scriptures is original knowledge of this world but at present many Indians by believing in Aryan invasion theory, false western theories like Darwin evolution theory which Darwin himself could not prove and still remains challenged, are giving discredit to Vedic Sages. After independence atleast Indians should start believing in their culture & civilization then what western scientists say.

Perhaps Indians are ignorant about Puranic Manvantar history which calculates cyclical time as per 4 Yugas, Mahayugas, Manvantar & Kalpa and which disapproves evolution of humans from Apes which is a western Adamic-Abrahamic concept.

Infact advanced Aryan culture originated from the start of Bramha’s day during स्वयंभुव मनु or मन्वंतर in Northern India known as the land of ब्रम्हावर्त were the Vedic literatures were revealed to the Vedic Sages as is mentioned in Puranic history which are real history and not mythology.

The present 7th विवस्वान मन्वंतर started 120 million years ago and we are living now in 28 महायुग 5110 कलियुग year.

Vedic Aryans were never naked. Man was naked is western concept due to Out of Africa theory or Adamic history popular in West Asia in the dominant religion of Christianity and Islam. Sanatan Vedic Dharma God revealed Vedas to Aryans and God himself descended in various Avatars to protect Dharma from miscreants in various Yugas. So God cannot be created by humans. 

Manu is progenitor of mankind which is संस्कृत word from which english word Man or civilized human or मनुष्य or मानव having evovled mind originated in India known as Caucasoid or Aryan race in India while the Black race people originated in Africa and Mongols originated in East Asia.

India – cradle of civilization 

Article by P.Oleksenko


60 – 70 000 years ago, people went out from Hindustan to settle all over the world!!!! 

See the posting by our russian friend Prof. Alexander Koltypin

“It was concluded that the center point of dispersion, from which came the people who made ancient settlements all around the world, was Hindustan. Streams of people rushed out of Hindustan into the Near East, Europe, Southeast Asia, Oceania and Australia 70-60 thousand years ago.

Prior to this, 80-70 thousand years ago in India and Southeast Asia came the ancestors of the Hindustani people (or, as it can be argued, the present humanity), but where they came from is not clear.

P.Oleksenko is taking seriously the hypothesis that the ancestors of modern people could have come to the peninsula of Hindustan from the mythical continent of Lemuria, which disappeared after the eruption of Toba.”
http://www.earthbeforeflood.com/p_oleksenlo_india_-_cradle_of_humanity_or_transit_point_in_development_of_civilizations_preface_a_koltypin.html

Other materials on Lemuria – in Russian. But they can be viewed with the help of a translator

http://www.dopotopa.com/atlantida_giperborea_lemuria_mu_-_kontinenty_davno_izvestnye_geologam.html

http://www.dopotopa.com/most_ramy_-_artefakt_drevnosti.html

http://www.dopotopa.com/n_rerih_lemuria.html

As a bonus I suggest to see the text in English

http://www.earthbeforeflood.com/most_important_catastrophe_in_history_of_earth_during_which_mankind_appeared_when_it_happened.html

http://www.earthbeforeflood.com/history_of_mankind_began_tens_millions_years_ago_comparison_of_legends_with_geological_data_testifies_it.html

Link of article

An Atomic Bomb went off on Earth more than 12000 years ago?


Ancient civilizations and pagan religions have left many mark in history with scripts, monuments and numerous objects that make us reevaluate what we know so far regarding our past and where we are going as a civilization.

The Mahabharata and the Ramayana offer many answers to numerous questions regarding our past, present and future.
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. It consists of 100,000 verses divided into 18 parts or books that are equivalent to eight times the Iliad and Odyssey combined. these ancient texts are more than a historical narration. It is a combination of facts, legends stories and myths. A vast collection of didactic discourses written that were written in a beautiful language, nurturing all Hindu mythology and creating one of the major world religions: Hinduism.
Among those historical texts, we see a story of a devastation that occurred in the past, one that cannot be compared to anything else in the past, a devastation much similar to what we know today is destruction caused by nuclear weapons. Historian Kisari Mohan Ganguli, argues that the Mahabharata and the Ramayana are full of descriptions of large nuclear holocausts that are apparently of incredibly higher proportions than those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
When a student asked Dr. Oppenheimer if the first nuclear device that went off was the one at Alamogordo. during the Manhattan Project, he responded… Well … yes. In modern times, yes, of course.
The ancient Hindu text the Mahabharata:
“Gurkha, flying a swift and powerful vimana,

hurled a single projectile

charged with the power of the Universe.
An incandescent column of smoke and flame,

as bright as ten thousand suns,

rose with all its splendor.
It was an unknown weapon,

an iron thunderbolt,

a gigantic messenger of death,

which reduced to ashes

the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.
The corpses were so burned

as to be unrecognizable.
Hair and nails fell out;

Pottery broke without apparent cause,

and the birds turned white.
…After a few hours

all foodstuffs were infected…

…to escape from this fire

the soldiers threw themselves in streams

to wash themselves and their equipment.”

 A second passage.
“Dense arrows of flame,

like a great shower,

issued forth upon creation,

encompassing the enemy.

A thick gloom swiftly settled upon the Pandava hosts.

All points of the compass were lost in darkness.

Fierce wind began to blow

Clouds roared upward,

showering dust and gravel.
Birds croaked madly…

the very elements seemed disturbed.

The sun seemed to waver in the heavens

The earth shook,

scorched by the terrible violent heat of this weapon.
Elephants burst into flame

and ran to and fro in a frenzy…

over a vast area,

other animals crumpled to the ground and died.

From all points of the compass

the arrows of flame rained continuously and fiercely.” — The Mahabharata
 
There are many other references in the Ramayana which seem to be very similar to those described in the above texts. It is very clear that these texts allude to a great holocaust that killed thousands of lives. One that can be easily traced to nuclear weapons we use today.
But is there evidence, other than the texts supporting the theory that a nuclear device went off on Earth thousands of years ago? In 1992 researchers discovered in Rajasthan a layer of radioactive ash, covering an area of ​​about eight square kilometers, 16 kilometers west of Jodhpur. The radiation is so intense that it still contaminates the area today. Researchers excavated at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, discovering skeletons scattered throughout the area as if a sudden event occurred that devastated entire cities.
 “(It was a weapon) so powerful

that it could destroy the earth in an instant–

A great soaring sound in smoke and flames–

And on it sits death…” . — The Ramayana
The site where researchers have found skeletons and remains of radioactivity is very similar to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but with one striking difference: the radiation levels found at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were 50 times higher than the remains of the nuclear holocaust of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
What really happened? Are the Mahabharata and the Ramayana really describing a nuclear device exploding on Earth tens of thousands of years ago? If so where id it come from? Ancient astronaut theorists are talking about a nuclear holocaust which happened around 12,000 years ago. An explosion that according to theories, created a crater with 2154 meters in diameter, located 400 kilometers from Mumbai.

The dating ranges from 12,000 to 50,000 years ago so researchers have a gigantic time frame to work with.

From ancient-code.com

कहानी गिलगमेश और उसके अमृतवा की खोज की (एक प्राचीन इराकी महागाथा)

गिलगमेश या बिलगमेश की वीरगाथा एक मेसोपोटामिया या प्राचीन इराक की वीरगाथा है ।
इस महागाथा को पत्थर की ईट पर लिखा गया था और वे 12 थी पर 12वि सही हालत में न होने के कारन कहानी का अंत कोई नहीं जानता।पर हाल ही में 12वि ईट मिली है और आज में आपको पूरी कहानी बताऊंगा।
ये कहानी है सुमेर शहर के राजा गिलगमेश (3000 ईसापूर्व )की साहसी कारनामो पर है।2500 ईसापूर्व में सर्गोन के पुरे मेसोपोटामिया को जीतने के बाद ये वीरगाथा काफी महसूर हुई ।
सिकंदर के फारस आक्रमण से पहले ये महागाथा वहा बहोत लोकप्रिय थी ।

कहानी

गिलगमेश सुमेर का 5वा एवं शक्तिशाली राजा था,वह आधा मानव और आधा देवता था।वह काफी सुन्दर और हस्त पुस्त था ।कई शहरों को जीतने के बाद उसने उरुक को अपनी राजधानी बनायीं
।अपनी सफलता के कारन और उसके जीतना इस पृथ्वी पर कोई शक्तिशाली न पाकर उसे घमंड हो गया और एक क्रूर राजा बन गया।
वह मजदूरो से अधिक काम कराता और किसी भी सुन्दर कन्या चाहे वो उसके किसी सेनापति की क्यों न हो उसकी इज्ज़त लूट लेता। आखिर लोगो के देवताओ से प्राथना के बाद देवताओ ने उनकी पुकार सुन गिलगमेश का संहार करने एंकि-दू भेज जो की गिलगमेश जितना शक्तिशाली था और एक वन्मनव था। वह जंगले में पशुओ के साथ रहता ।
एक दिन एक शिकारी गिलगमेश के पास गया और उसे बताया की एक वन मानुष है जो उनके फंदों से जानवरों को छुड़ा देता है।
गिलगमेश ने एक सुन्दर देवदासी शमश को एंकि-दू को लुभाकर उरुक लाने भेजा क्युकी उस समय यह मन जाता था की शराब और काम वाष्ण आदमी को सब्याता की और ले जा सकती है।
शमश एंकि-दू के साथ रही और उसे सभ्यता की और ले गयी अब एंकि-दू एक वन मानव नहीं एक सभ्य मानव था ।
उरुक पहोच शमश और एंकि-दू ने शादी कर ली ।
कई दिन उरुक ने रहने के बाद एंकि-दू को गिलगमेश के बारे में पता चला और उसके कुकर्मो के बारे में भी।
एंकि-दू गिलगमेश को चुनौती देने गया।
दोनों के बिच घमासान मल्य युद्ध हुआ आखिर में गिलगमेश को उसकी बुरे का एहसास हुआ और दोनों एक दुसरे की शक्ति से प्रवाहित हो मित्र बनगए।

दोनों मित्रो ने कई शहर जीते आखिर में गिलगमेश को देवताओ के देवदार के बाग़ से देवदार चुराने की शुजी ताकि उसकी लकड़ी से उरुक शहर के दरवाजे बनाये जाये।
एंकि-दू ने पहले तो मन किया पर बाद में मान गया।
दोनों मित्र रस्ते की कई बढाओ को पार कर बाग़ तक पहुचे पर एक मुस्किल थी बाग़ की रक्षा हुबाबा करता था जिसे प्राचीन इराक के वायु देव ने बनाया था।
दोनों हुबाबा से लदे आखिर हुबाबा की मृत्यु हो गयी।
दोनों ने मिल देवदार के वृक्ष कटे और कुछ लकड़ियो की सहयता से एक नाव बनाई ताकि वृष उसमे लाद ले जा सके ।
शहर पहोच गिलगमेश ने उसके दरवाजे बनाये इस बिच हुबाबा की मृयु की खबर देवताओ तक पहोची जिसे सुन इश्तार यानि प्यार की देवी गिलगमेश पर मोहित हो गयी और गिलगमेश के पास अपने प्यार का इज़हार करने गयी।
गिलगमेश ने उसे साफ माना कर दिया।
गिलगमेश ने कहा :- हे प्रेम की देवी इश्तार में तुम्हारे पिछले प्रमो के बारे में जानता हु साथ ही ये भी की जैसे ही तुम्हारा उनसे मन उबा वैसे ही उन सब को मृत्यु देखनी पड़ी।
यह सुन इश्तार अपने पिता अनु के पास गयी और उन्हें स्वर्ग का सांड उरुक पर भेजने के लिए कहा ।
अपने पिता के मन करने के बाद इश्तार ने अनु को धमकी दी की यदि उसके कहा अनुसार नहीं हुआ तो वह नर्क का दरवाजा खोल देगी जिससे हजारो जीन्द मृत(Zombies) बहार आयेंगे और तबाही मचा देंगे ।
विवस हो अनु ने उरुक पर सांड भेज दिया। सांड अपने साथ 7 वर्ष का सुखा लाया ।गिलगमेश और एंकि-दू उस सांड से लड़ने गए ,कई दिन लड़ने के बाद आखिर एंकि-दू ने उस सांड के सिंग पकड़ लिए (निचे दी हुई तस्वीर देखे)और गिलगमेश ने उसे मार डाला ।
पर एंकिदू बहोत घायल हो गया बिलकुल अर्ध्मारा सा इसीलिए वह अब शैया पर ही पड़ा रहता।
एक दिन उसे सपना आया की देवताओ ने सभा बुलाई है और वे कह रहे है की हुबाबा और स्वर्ग के सांड को मरने की वजह से गिलगमेश और एंकि दू ने अपरद किया है इसीलिए इन्हें सजा मिलनी चाहिए मृत्युदंड की पर गिलगमेश सुधर गया है उसे मरना सही नहीं रहेगा पर एंकिदू को तो गिलगमेश का संहार करने के लिए भेज था और अब जोकि गिलगमेश सुधर गया तो एंकिदू का कुछ काम नहीं ,उसका जीवन का लक्ष्य समाप्त हो गया है इसीलिए उसे मृत्युदंड दी जाए।
एंकिदू सपना देख खुदको कोसने लगा ।
वह कहता :- “क्यों में इस निर्दयी मानव दुनिया में आया मैं जंगले में उन पशुओ के साथ ज्यादा सुखी था ।
ह वह नारी शमश क्यों में उसके जाल में फसा नहीं उसके जसल में मैं फास्ता और नाही में उरुक आता।
पर वाही थी जिसने मुझे रोटी दी खाने के लिए और दूध दिया उसने मेरा कितना क्या रखा ,भगवन उसे सदा सुखी रखे।
और गिलगमेश मेरा मित्र मेरा भाई ओह उसने क्या क्या नहीं किया मेरे लिए। मेरे मरन उपरांत वह मेरे लिए सबसे सुन्दर शैया लायेगा। स्वर्ग में मेरा कयल रखने के लिए कई दसिय और रखेल भेजेगा (उस वक़्त किसी आमिर या राजा के साथ जिन्दा रखैले और दास दासिया दफनाई जाती क्युकी यह मन जस्ता था मरने के बाद स्वर्ग में उनकी आवश्कता पड़ेगी )भगवन उसे सदैव जीत दिलाये ।”
यह बात एंकिदू ने गिलगमेश को बताई ,गिलगमेश दुखी हो गया पर वह एंकिदू को दिलासा देता रहा की वह जीवित रहेंगा ।
एंकिदू बहोत बीमार पद गया और आखिर मर गया ।गिलगमेश उसके पास ही था ,उसके मरने के बाद वह उसे जगाने की कोशिस करता पर एंकिदू कुछ नहीं कहता,गिलगमेश ने एंकिदू की दिल की धड़कन देखि वह रुक चुकी थी।
कई दिन तक गिलगमेश उसकी लाश के बाजू में रहा आखिर जब एंकिदू की लाश सड़ने लगी और कीड़े उसे खाने लगे तब गिलगमेश ने उसे सम्मान सहित दफना दिया।
गिलगमेश को दक्खा लगे अपने मित्र की मौत पर वह सोचने लगा जिस कदर उसका प्यारा मित्र मरा क्या उसी कदर वह मरेगा ,गिलगमेश जीना चाहता था वह अमर होना चाहता था तब उसे अपने बड़े बुडो की कहानी याद आई जिउसुद्दु की जो की मनु का इराकी स्वरुप था।उसे याद आया स्वयं देवताओ ने उसे अमरता का राज बताया था ,गिलगमेश उसी का वंशज था जिउसुद्दु उसकी सहयता जरुर करेगा।
गिलगमेश दुनिया के आखिरी छोर की खोज में निकला जहा जिउसुद्दु रहता था।
कई महीनो तक चलने के बाद उसकी हालत भी एंकिदू सी हो गयी,वह स्वयं एंकिदू नजात आता। उसके सारे वस्त्र निकल गए थे और सरीर पर बड़े बड़े बाल आ गए थे।
गिलगमेश दो पहाड़ी के यहाँ पहोचा। उन पहाडियों के बीचो बिच एक गुफा थी जो जिउसिद्दु के घर की ओर जाता पर दो विशाल बिछुओ ने उसका रास्ता रोक लिया ।दोनों से युद्ध कर उन दोनों को गिलगमेश ने मर डाला और गुफा में चला गया।
गुफा में काफी अँधेरा था,बहोत दूर चलने के बाद एक छोर उसे रोशनी नजर आई। उसरी तरफ पहोच उसे एक सुन्दर बाग़ नजर आया ,बाग़ के पास एक सागर था जिसका नाम मृत्यु सागर था और उसके बिच में एक द्वीप पर था जिउसुद्दु का घर।
वह सागर के किनारे पहोच तो एक जल देवी  आई और उसे रोकते हुए बोली की चले जाओ वापस। गिलगमेश ने उसे वह आने का कारन बताया जिसे सुन उस देवी ने उसे समझाया पर वह नहीं माना और आगे चल दिया।
उसे सागर के किनारे एक नाव मिली इसमें जिउसुद्दु माझी था,उस माझी ने भी गिलगमेश को लाख समझाया पर वो मन नहीं आखिर माझी उसे जिउसिद्दु के पास ले गया।
जिउसुद्दु ने गिलगमेश को देखा तो कुश हुआ पर उसकी इच्छा सुन चिंतित हो गया।
गिलगमेश की जिद के बाद जिउसुद्दु मान गया पर एक शर्त राखी ,गिलगमेश को पूरा एक सप्ता बिना सोये बिताना था पर आखिर कुछ दिन न सोने की की कोशिश करने के बाद वह सो गया।
दुखी हो गिलगमेश जाने लगा पर जिउसुद्दु की बीवी ने जिउसिद्दु को गिलगमेश की थोड़ी मदत करने के लिए कहा ।
जिउसुद्दु ने गिलगमेश को रोका और उसे पास ही के अमृत सागर में जसने को कहा जिसकी ताल हटी में एक औषदी थी जो उसको दुबारा जवान बना देगी (बबुली और दुसरे इराकी की शहरों की कहानी अनुसार यह औषदी अमृत्व प्रदान करती है .यह पूरी तरह से सुमेरी कहानी है जो सबसे पहली और असली है )
गिलगमेश अमृत सागर गया और औषद प्राप्त कर उरुक की और गया।
उरुक जाते समय एक तलब आया रस्ते पर तो गिलगमेश उसमे नहाने के लिए गया।
पास ही एक सर्प था जो औषदी की गंद से मोहित हो गया और उसे खा गया। अब सर्प जवान और पहले से अधिक शक्तिशाली बन गया ।उसकी पुराणी केचुली उतर गयी और एक हस्त पुस्त सर्प निकला जो चला गया।
नहाके आने के बाद गिलगमेश ने पाया की औषदी वहा नहीं है साथ ही वहा सर्प की केचुली थी ।वह समझ गया क्या हुआ ।
उसे बहोत दुःख हुआ की उसकी मेहनत एक रेंगने वाले जीव ने नस्त कर दी ।
गिलगमेश उरुक पंहुचा उदास मन से और वह शाशन करने लगा,उसे एहसास हुआ की जग जितना आसन है पर दिल जीतना कठिन इसीलिए अब वह लोगो की भलाई का काम करता ।
कई साल बिड गए और गिलगमेश वृद्ध हो गया उसे अब यह चिंता सताने लगी की उसकी मृत्यु के बाद उसके शारीर और आत्मा का क्या होगा ।
गिलगमेश ने देवता नर्गल को याद किया। नर्गल ने उसे सरीर सहित नर्क में पंहुचा दिया। वहा वह भाधाए पर कर और नर्क के रक्षक को हराकर आगे बड़ा और उसे आखिर एंकिदू की आत्मा मिली।
नर्गल ने भूमि में दरार करदी जिस कारन दोनों मित्र नर्क से बहार आ गए।
गिलगमेश ने एंकिदू से अपना सवाल किया ,जवाब में एंकिदू ने कहा की गिलगमेश इसे सुन नहीं पायेंग पर गिलगमेश की जिद के कारन उसने बताया की इस सरीर को कीड़े खा जाते है और आत्मा पृथ्वी पर भटक मल और सदा हुआ पानी पीती है यदि उसकी कब्र पर रोज आहार न रखा जाये।
कुछ साल पहले तक यही कहानी का अंत मन जाता था की गिलगमेश को मरने के बाद होने वाले कास्ट का पता चलता है पर अभी अभी एक और ईट मिली है जिसके अनुशार गिलगमेश की भी मौत होती है और उसकी आत्मा नर्क में जाती है पर अछे कर्मो के कारन उसे नर्क का न्यायधीश(जज) बना दिया जाता है ।
जय माँ भारती

Transmigration of the soul through 8,400,000 different forms

If you think you’re in this world for the first time and that God gives you just one lifetime ‘away’ from Him, I’ve got some very bad news for you… Take courage, keep on reading and know your sad destiny…soul
 
What is the ‘regular’ destiny of each and every individual soul who left God? The destiny is – Transmigration of the soul through 8,400,000 different forms (species) through countless time and space continuums. And that’s not all. We probably have more than one such cycle behind us! There is even more: we don’t remember anything from those cycles; barely one can remember something from his/her past lives, but none us can ever remember all our past lives. That is impossible for ‘ordinary’ soul who is in the cycle of transmigration. This is the subject of special mercy of God, and such mercy can’t get one who don’t give a damn about God, who is Person, not some impersonal energy or concept in our head.
 
So one may think about this fact in the following way: “I’ve passed through millions and millions of life-forms before I was given a chance to obtain human body again and I still don’t know nor understand WHY I’m in this world, HOW I got here, and WHERE will I go after my body drops dead… And I still do what I always did, still chasing rainbows and happiness in this world, from these people, from this or that… I pass my days just like everybody does….”
 
Sincerely, I don’t understand how can one go to sleep without finding out the answers to those basic existential questions posed above? How can one go to sleep without knowing the Truth, the Absolute Truth, that which is eternal and all-pervading?
Moreover, if in this human body one is given the extremely rare chance to get to know the Lord through Vedas and/or from those who personally know Him…. -> how can one throw one more life again? That’s scary… way too scary.
 

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“Having gone through all the miserable, hellish conditions and having passed in a regular order through the lowest forms of animal life prior to human birth, and having thus been purged of his sins, one is reborn again as a human being on this earth.” Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.30.34 

“In this universe there are limitless living entities in 8,400,000 species, and all are wandering within this universe.” Sri Caitanya Caritamrita Madhya 19.138

PURPORT

This is a challenge to so-called scientists and philosophers who presume that there are living entities on this planet only. So-called scientists are going to the moon, and they say that there is no life there. This does not tally with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu‘s version. He says that everywhere within the universe there are unlimited numbers of living entities in 8,400,000 different forms. In the Bhagavad-gita (2.24) we find that the living entities are sarvagata, which means that they can go anywhere. This indicates that there are living entities everywhere. They exist on land, in water, in air, in fire and in ether. Thus there are living entities in all types of material elements. Since the entire material universe is composed of five elements — earth, water, fire, air and ether — why should there be living entities on one planet and not others? Such a foolish version can never be accepted by Vedic students.

From the Vedic literatures we understand that there are living entities on each and every planet, regardless of whether the planet is composed of earth, water, fire or air. These living entities may not have the same forms that are found on this planet earth, but they have different forms composed of different elements. Even on this earth we can see that the forms of land animals are different from the forms of aquatics. According to the circumstance, living conditions differ, but undoubtedly there are living entities everywhere. Why should we deny the existence of living entities on this or that planet? Those who have claimed to have gone to the moon have not gone there, or else with their imperfect vision they cannot actually perceive the particular type of living entities there.

The living entities are described as ananta, or unlimited; nonetheless, they are said to belong to 8,400,000 species. As stated in the Vishnu Purana:

jala-ja nava-lakshani sthavara laksha-vimsati
krimayo rudra-sankhyakah pakshinam dasa-lakshanam
trimsal-lakshani pasavah catur-lakshani manushah
 

There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 nonmoving living entities (sthavara), such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned, there are 3,000,000 varieties, andthere are 400,000 human species.” Some of these species may exist on one planet and not on another, but in any case within all the planets of the universe — and even in the sun — there are living entities. This is the verdict of the Vedic literatures. As theBhagavad-gita (2.20) confirms:

na jayate mriyate va kadacin
nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah
ajo nityah sasvato ‘yam purano
na hanyate hanyamane sarire
 

“For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.”

Since the living entities are never annihilated, they simply transmigrate from one life form to another. Thus there is an evolution of forms according to the degree of developed consciousness. One experiences different degrees of consciousness in different forms. A dog’s consciousness is different from a man’s. Even within a species we find that a father’s consciousness is different from his son’s and that a child’s consciousness is different from a youth’s. Just as we find different forms, we find different states of consciousness. When we see different states of consciousness, we may take it for granted that the bodies are different. In other words, different types of bodies depend on different states of consciousness. This is also confirmed in theBhagavad-gita (8.6):

yam yam vapi smaran bhavam tyajanty ante kalevaram
tam tam evaiti kaunteya sada tad bhava-bhavitah
 

“One’s consciousness at the time of death determines one’s type of body in the next life.” This is the process of transmigration of the soul. A variety of bodies is already there; we change from one body to another in terms of our consciousness.

 

Purusha Sukta from Rigveda

INTRO

The Purusha Sukta from Rigveda (Sacred Chants) – beautiful hymn in praise of Supreme Cosmic Being, the Supreme Lord, the Lord of Lords. God, the Father, the Supreme Personality of Godhead  is One, all pervading, Omnipresent, Omniscient, Omnipotent; yet He expands Himself into many, directly or indirectly. His first expansion is Lord Baladeva (as the ‘Son’) from Whom everything is created. The Son’s act of creation is considered His Self-sacrifice (yajna). Purusha means the Original Person, the Supreme Enjoyer; as such, He is the Supreme Enjoyer of all sacrifices and the sacrifice (oblation) Itself. (The term sacrifice means: offering something to God with Love. Anything offered to God with Love is sacrifice. Love and affection is the only valid ingredient of such sacrifice.) He Himself further expands into many, everything is His energy, all universes and ourselves; “For in Him we live and move and exist. As some of your own poets have said, ‘We are His offspring’.” [Acts 17,28] “All of you together are Christ’s Body, and each of you is a part of it.” [1 Cor 12,27]

Content:

Purusha is described as a Primeval gigantic Person, from whose Body the world and the varnas (socioeconomic classes) are built. He is described as having a thousand heads and a thousand feet. He emanated Viraj, the female creative principle, from which he is reborn in turn before the world was made out of his parts.

In the sacrifice of Purusha, the Vedic chants were first created. The horses and cows were born, the Brahmins (Learned men) were made from Purusha’s mouth, the Kshatriyas (Men with strength) from his arms, the Vaishyas (Men with business acumen) from his thighs, and the Shudras (Men who Work) from his feet. [1] The Moon was born from his mind, the Sun from his eyes, the heavens from his skull. Indra and Agni emerged from his mouth.

The hymn finds place in various Vedic texts such as the Atharvaveda (19.6), the Samaveda (6.4), the Yajurveda (VS 31.1-6), the Taittiriya Aranyaka (3.12,13), and it is commented upon in the Shatapatha Brahmana, the Taittiriya Brahmana, the Shvetashvatara Upanishad and the Mudgala Upanishad. It is one of the few Rig vedic hymns still current in contemporary Hinduism like, the Gayatri mantra. The Purusha Sukta is also mentioned with explanations and interpretations in the Vajasaneyi Samhita (31.1-6), the Sama veda Samhita (6.4), and the Atharva veda Samhita (19.6). Among Puranic texts, the Sukta has also been elaborated in the Bhagavata Purana (2.5.35 to 2.6.1-29) and in the Mahabharata.

Peace Invocation

Om taccham yoravrini mahe
ghatun yajnaya
ghatun yajnapataye
daivi svastirastu naha
svastir manushebhyaha
urdhvam jigatu bheshajam
sham no astu dvipade
sham chatushpade
Om shantih shantih shantihi

We worship and pray to the Supreme Lord for the welfare of all beings. May all miseries and shortcomings leave us forever so that we may always sing for the Lord during the holy fire ceremonies. May all medicinal herbs grow in potency so that all diseases may be cured. May the gods rain peace on us. May all the two-legged creatures be happy, and may all the four-legged creatures also be happy. May there be peace in the hearts of all beings in all realms.

Om sahasra shirsha purushaha
sahasrakshas sahasrapat
sa bhumim vishvato vritva
atyatishthad dhashangulam

The Purusha (the Supreme Lord) has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes and a thousand feet. He has enveloped this world from all sides and has (even) transcended it by ten angulas or inches.

purusha evedagam sarvam
yadbhutam yaccha bhavyam
utamritatva syeshanaha
yadanne natirohati

All this is verily the Purusha. All that which existed in the past or will come into being in the future (is also the Purusha). Also, he is the Lord of immortality. That which grows profusely by food (is also the Purusha).

etavanasya mahima
ato jyayagamshcha purushaha
padosya vishva bhutani
tripadasya mritam divi

So much is His greatness. However, the Purusha is greater than this. All the beings form only a quarter (part of) Him. The three-quarter part of His, which is eternal, is established in the spiritual domain.

tripadurdhva udaitpurushaha
padosyeha bhavatpunaha
tato vishvajya kramat
sashana ashane abhi

The Purusha with the three-quarters (of His energy) ascended above (the spiritual energy). His one quarter of material energy becomes this creation again (and again). Then He pervades this universe comprising a variety of sentient beings and insentient objects.

tasmad viradajayata
virajo adhi purushah
sa jato atyarichyata
pashchad bhumimatho puraha

From Him (the Adipurusha or original Supreme Being) was born the Virat (or Virat Purusha, the immense universal form). Making this Virat as the substratum (another) purusha (or being, Brahma) (was born). As soon as he was born, he multiplied himself. Later, he created this earth and then, the bodies (of the living beings).

yatpurushena havisha
deva yajnam atanvata
vasanto asyasidajyam
grishma idhmash sharaddhavihi

When the devas (the demigods or beings of light) performed a yajna (or sacrificial ritual), using the Purusha as the havis (sacrificial material) for the yajna (ritual), the Vasanta (spring) became the ajya (ghee), the Grishma (summer) served as idhma (pieces of wood) and the sharad (autumn) filled the place of havis (oblatory material like the purodasha or rice-cake).

saptasyasan paridhayaha
trissapta samidhah kritaha
deva yadjajnam tanvanaha
abadhnan purusham pashum

For this (yajna or spiritual ceremony) there were seven paridhis (fuel pieces serving as borders). And, twenty-one items were made the samit or sacrificial fuel sticks. When the devas were performing this yajna or ceremony, they tied the Purusha (Himself) as the pashu (sacrificial animal).

tam yajnam barhishipraukshan
purusham jatamagrataha
tena deva ayajantaha
sadhya rishayashchaye

The devas, the sadhyas and the rishis performed the sacrifice by using that Purusha as the means of yajna, the Purusha who had been born in the beginning, after sprinkling him with water by the barhis (or sacrificial grass).

tasmad yajnat sarvahutaha
sambhritam vrishadajyam
pashugamstya gashchakre
vayavyan aranyan gramashcaye

From that yajna (or sacrificial ritual) wherein the Cosmic Being was Himself the oblation, was produced the prasajya (or curds mixed with ghee). Birds flying in the air, wild animals of the forest as also the domesticated animals of the villages were also produced.

tasmad yajnat sarvahutaha
richassamani jijignire
chandhagamsi jijignire tasmat
yajus tasmad ajayata

From that yajna (or sacrifice) wherein the Cosmic Being was Himself the oblation, were born the riks (the mantras of the Rig-veda) and the samans (the mantras of the Sama-veda). From that (yajna) the metres (like Gayatri) were born. From that (yajna again) the yujas (the Yajur-veda) was born.

tasmadashva ajayata
ye ke cobhaya dataha
gavo ha jijignire tasmat
tasmad jnata ajavayaha

From that were born the horses, as also animals (like donkeys and mules) which have two rows of teeth. From that were born the cattle. From that (again) were born goats and sheep.

yatpurusham vyadadhuhu
kadhita vyakalpayan
mukham kimasya kau bahu
kavuru padavuchayate

(Now some questions are raised by the sages:) When the gods decided to (mentally) sacrifice the Viratpurusha (and produce further creation), in how many ways did they do it? What became of his face or mouth? What became of his two arms? What became of His two thighs? What were (the products of) the two feet called?

brahmanosya mukhamasit
bahu rajanyah kritaha
uru tadasya yadvaishyaha
padhyagam shudro ajayata

From His face (or the mouth) came the brahmanas. From His two arms came the rajanya (the kshatriyas). From His two thighs came the vaishyas. From His two feet came the shudras.

chandrama manaso jataha
chakshoh suryo ajayata
mukhad indrash chagnishcha
pranadvayur ajayata

From His mind was born the moon. From His two eyes was born the sun. From His mouth were born Indra and Agni. From His breath was born the air.

nabhya asidanta riksham
shirshno dyauh samavartata
padhyam bhumirdishash shrotrat
tada lokagamm akalpayan

From (His) navel was produced the antariksha (the space between the earth and the heavens). Dyuloka (or heaven) came into existence from His head. The bhumi (the earth) evolved out of His feet, and deek (or spacial directions) from His ears. Similarly (the demigods) produced the worlds (too).

vedahametam purusham mahantam
adityavarnam tamasastu pare
sarvani rupani vichitya dhiraha
namani kritva abhivadan yadaste

I know (through intuitive experience) this great Purusha (the Supreme Lord), the wise one, who, having created the various forms and the nomenclatures (for those forms), deals with them by those names, and who is beyond darkness and is brilliant like the sun.”

dhata purastadya mudajahara
shakrah pravidvan pradishashcha tasraha
tamevam vidvan amrita iha bhavati
nanyah pantha ayanaya vidyate

In the ancient days, Prajapati (Brahma) praised Him. Indra who knows all the four quarters also spoke about Him. Anyone who knows Him thus, will become immortal even in this life. For attaining liberation there is no other path (than knowledge of this Purusha, the Supreme Lord).

yajnena yajnam ayajanta devaha
tani dharmani pradhamanyasan
te ha nakam mahimanas sacante
yatra purve sadhyah santi devaha

The (demi)gods worshiped (the Supreme Creator in the form of) yajna through yajna (sacrifical ceremonies). Those very processes became the primary dharmas (laws guiding humanity). Those great ones attain that heaven where the ancient devas (demigods) and sadhyas live.

adbhyas sambhutah prithivyai rasacca
vishvakarmanas samavartatadhi
tasya tvashta vidadhad rupameti
tatpurushasya vishvamajanamagre

The Viratpurusha manifested Himself from out of (the all-pervading) water as also the essence of the element of earth. This Virat-purusha was born out of the greatness of the Parama-purusha, the Creator. The (Paramapurusha, known as) Tvashta engaged Himself in the act of creating (the fourteen planetary systems), (which form of the expanded) figure (of the Viratpurusha). (Thus) the entire creation (related to the Viratpurusha) came into existence in the very beginning of creation.

vedahametam purusham mahantam
adityavarnam tamasah parastat
tamevam vidvan amrita iha bhavati
nanyah pantha vidyate’yanaya

“I have known that great Purusha (Supreme Lord) who is brilliant like the sun and who is beyond all darkness. One who knows Him thus becomes immortal (even) here. There is no other path for liberation than this.”

prajapatishcharati garbhe antaha
ajayamano bahudha vijayate
tasya dhirah parijananti yonim
marichinam padamicchanti vedhasaha

Prajapati (the Supreme Creator) moves inside the cosmic womb. (Though) unborn He takes birth in a variety of ways. The wise ones know His (real nature) as the origin (of the universe). The (secondary) creators desire to attain the positions of Marichi and others.

yo devebhya atapati
yo devanam purohitaha
purvo yo devebhyo jataha
namo ruchaya brahmaye

Obeisances to Him, the self-luminous Brahman, who shines for the (demi)gods, who is the leader of the rituals of the gods and who was born even before the gods.

rucham brahmam janayantaha
deva agre tadabruvan
yastvaivam brahmano vidyat
tasya deva asanvashe

In the beginning of creation, the gods, manifesting the light of Brahman, addressed Brahman thus: “That brahmana who realizes (You) thus, all the gods will come under his control.”

hrishcha te lakshmishcha patnyau
ahoratre parshve
nakshatrani rupam
ashvinau vyattam
ishtam manishana
amun manishana
sarvam manishana
Om shanti shanti shantihi

O Purusha! The goddesses Hri (modesty) and Sri (Lakshmi, wealth) are Your consorts. Day and night are Your lateral limbs. The stars are Your form. The Ashvins are your widely opened (mouth). (O Purusha) fulfill our desire for self-knowledge as also our desire for the enjoyments of this world (like longevity, cows, and horses). Give us all that we need. Om, let there be peace, peace, peace.